Open Access Journal of Scientific, Technology & Engineering Research

International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research (ISSN 2347-4289)

IJTEEE Volume 1 - Issue 4, November 2013 Edition - ISSN 2347-4289

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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K. Satheesh, K. Sudha

ABSTRACT: Watermarking is a technique, which is used in protecting digital information like image, video and audio as it provides copyrights and ownership Audio watermarking is more difficult than image watermarking than image watermarking due to the dynamic supremacy of hearing capacity over the visual field. Digital watermarking is a technique by which copyright information is embedded into the host signal in a way that the embedded information is imperceptible, and robust .Audio water marking is possible for multimedia content production system. In this paper we are going to study about different types of watermarking methods based on different domain.

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Baraka W. Nyamtiga, Anael Sam, Loserian S. Laizer

ABSTRACT: In mobile banking schemes; financial services are availed and banking services are provided using mobile devices. GSM services are greatly utilized for data transmission by the technologies used in conducting mobile transactions. In their operations; these technologies send data in plaintext. Financial service providers tend to rely on the security services provided by the GSM which has been proved to be susceptible to cryptanalytic attacks. The used algorithms for crypto mechanisms are flawed leaving data carried through the network vulnerable upon interception. Operators need to take precaution by enforcing some protective measures on the information to be transmitted. This paper describes an SMS based model designed with security features to enhance data protection across mobile networks. Features for data encryption, integrity, secure entry of security details on the phone, and improved security policies in the application server are incorporated. We address issues of data confidentiality, user authentication and message integrity in order to provide end-to-end security of data carried on GSM networks.

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Shakshi Panwar, Nani Yalu, Kashmira Sakunde, Madhuri Sanap

ABSTRACT: Nowadays, there is a shortage of experimental platforms needed for learning IT systems in a hands-on way is one reason for the lack of quality education in the area of IT/CS. For most students who have access to a PC, their ability to experiment on that machine is limited by the risk of possible irrecoverable damage their experimentation may cause to the equipment. So to avoid this irrecoverable damage to the system we are introducing a "virtual lab to teach Linux on web". This lab will provides you the basics of Linux with the interactive sessions and student forum. The goal of this laboratory is to give the students a platform through which they can learn the essentials of Linux. Here student can interact with the virtual instance of Linux machine through a web browser on his machine. Major advantage of this lab is that we don't need to install the Linux OS on our system, without installing Linux OS also we can use it. We can also execute the Linux commands on the prompt. The lab consists of a suite of experiments designed as web applications.

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Sandeep Satapathy, Sambeet Satapathy, Binod Ku Jena

ABSTRACT: Mangroves are known to possess medicinal properties and this has been established by research over years. The screen of antitumor and growth effector potential of few mangrove plants of Bhitarkanika natural reserve Odisha, helps to identify the total therapeutic potential of these plant extracts due to net composition of several primary and secondary metabolites ranging from carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids to that of aliphatic alcohols and pheromones. Radish seed phytotoxicity assay and Zone of inhibition study against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and potato disc assay show a distinct interference of plant extracts against tumor formation and bacterial growth, thereby attributing to its antitumor and growth inhibitor properties. This screen helps in identifying these potential plant types that can be used for medicinal purposes against specific bacterias and microbes and also be used as a nutrient supplement for fighting against the free oxide radicals.

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K. Guru Raghavendra Reddy, Prof. D. P. Tripathy

ABSTRACT: Coal gangue is residual abandoned coal, produced after the pre-processing steps of mining. It is an amalgam of several unwanted substances. It is important to separate coal gangue from lump coal before fed to thermal power plants. In this paper, investigation on the fundamental characteristics of coal images and gangue images with digital image processing technology is proposed. The system determines the image feature of coal and gangue, particularly their gray scale values by using traditional threshold segmentation. By analyzing the characteristics of the image, the system identifies the gangue. The outcome indicated that the comparison of coal images and gangue images could successfully achieve the real-time automatic separation of gangue.

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Ch. Sudheer, K. Rajashekar, P. Padmanabha Reddy, Y. Bhargava Gopi Krishna

In this study, an attempt is made that 220kV Transmission line tower is modeled using STADD Pro 2006. The towers are designed in two wind zones I & V with three different base widths 1/4, 1/5 &1/6 of total height of tower. Towers are modeled using parameters such as constant height, bracing system, angle sections and variable parameters of different Base widths and Wind zones. The loads are calculated from IS: 802(1995). After completing the analysis, the comparative study is done with respect to deflections, stresses, axial forces and weight of tower for all 6 different towers.

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Miss. Pallavi Charde

Abstract: In the past two decades, many noise reduction techniques have been developed for removing noise and retaining edge details in images. The process of removing noise from the original image is still a demanding problem for researchers. There have been several algorithms and each has its assumptions, merits, and demerits. The prime focus of this paper is related to the pre processing of an image before it can be used in applications. The pre processing is done by de-noising of images. In order to achieve these de-noising algorithms, filtering approach and wavelet based approach are used and performs their comparative study. Image filtering algorithms are applied on images to remove the different types of noise that are either present in the image during capturing or injected into the image during transmission. Wavelet transform and median filter are used for the image reconstruction and denoising. In this paper, we propose fast and high-quality nonlinear algorithms for denoising digital images corrupted by mixed Poisson-Gaussian noise.

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S. Selvi

Abstract: Good interfaces should help us to decide what next? Hence, Interface design issues pertinent to this project include the integration of media, annotation, use of metaphors, standards and the goals of the multimedia system. Without control over facial appearance, screening perspective, illumination circumstances, occlusions, background, expression, hairstyles, in the video quality is exaggerated and image contains noise pixels and Face data in different angle cannot be recognized. So recognize an unimpeded pose and visualizing a video in multimedia environment with authoring is, still a thorny way. In this paper we present a dual course of action, at first annotate a video with excellent pretense extraction using Fuzzy Local Information C-Means (FLICM) Clustering Algorithm. This approach is used to fuzzy local gray level quantify resemblance, aiming to assure noise insensitiveness and image detail preservation. Subsequently we can generate sketches using sobel operator which finds the sharp intensity variation of an image and it obtains the edges of the objects contained on the image. At the jiffy phase we propose a text gloss scene structured graph to authorize a video.

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Nilesh T. Gole, Najim Sheikh, Swati Jadhav, Sharvari Komaj War, Kasim Ali Sayed

ABSTRACT: This document can provide a summary of Distributed database.It support a massive storage of data using some techniques that distributed on different multiple computer for processing. The purpose of this paper is to study ,how we can access the information by using Distrributed database from the local and remote database. Various Application of Distributed for accessing the data from the different computer located on different networks. We will study the various types of Distributed data base. In which we study how we create a du-plicate copy of source database and modify the duplicate copy without affecting the original copy.We also study use of partitioning the large record into number of records and partitioned Index that provide the table avaibility of the records. Various application of the distributed database in a different field the objective of distributed data base.

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Rajayogeswari.R, Katherin Nithya.D, Baskaran.S

ABSTRACT: The Semantic Web is a collaborative movement led by the international standards body, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It is an extension of the current web that provides an easier way to find, share, reuse and combine information. Ontology formally represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, and the relationships between pairs of concepts. It can be used to model a domain and support reasoning about concepts. E-Learning is the use of electronic media and information communication technologies (ICT) in education. It is broadly inclusive of all forms of educational technology in learning. It can occur in and out of the class room. It can be self placed, asynchronous learning or may be instructor led, synchronous learning. This work shows how we can implement simple searching in e-learning systems using ontology rules. This work minimizes user time while searching in the e-learning systems. This work will be definitely used for those who are doing their final year projects. And also it will be used for Research scholars.

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Egbuhuzor Udechukwu P., Ugbene Ifeanyichukwu, EzeEverestus O

ABSTRACT: The problem of vibrations of plucked strings was investigated. The objective is to determine the vibrational behaviour of a guitar with nylon and steel strings. The derived Newton's second law of motion [7] with damping coefficient was used and the equation of the form -T(x) sin⁡θ+T(x+∆x) sin⁡β-ω∆xU_t=mU_tt . . . (1) Was considered. The method of separable variable was applied and we obtained U_xx-KU_t= 1/C^2 U_tt . . . (2) The result shows that nylon strings decay mainly as a result of internal damping in the strings while steel strings decay due to air viscosity. Therefore we conclude that nylon strings are under less tension than steel strings [5].

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Suvi V, Vismi V

Abstract: The paper "Resolution Enhancement with Wavelet Unsharp Masking of Satellite Image" makes use of both wavelet and unsharp masking techniques. It is performed by using satellite image. By implementing this paper, increasing the resolution and removal of noisy content is achieved at the same time. Proposing an effective resolution enhancement techniques and then sharpening the image for removing the noisy content in that image. First DWT is applied to the input image, it decomposes the image into different frequency subbands apply bicubic interpolation to these subbands and inorder to remove the noisy contents in the image here it uses unsharp masking technique. Thus a resolution enhanced denoised image is obtained using wavelet transform.

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Ashenafi Mitiku, Alemayehu Chala, Yibrah Beyene

ABSTRACT: Potyvirus is a very large viral group and contains many economically important viruses affecting various crops including pepper. This study was conducted with the main objective of identifying the effects of intercropping pepper with maize and sweet potato on potyvirus incidence, aphid population, yield and yield components of pepper. Field experiments were conducted in two localities; Mareko and Meskan of southern Ethiopia from April to October 2011. The experiments were conducted with RCBD design. Each treatment was replicated four times at both locations. The incidences of potyvirus infected plants were monitored once a week and data on yield and yield components were taken at harvest and then yield data was calculated by using land equivalent ratio method (LER). Results of the experiment revealed that intercropping of pepper with maize significantly (p<0.001) reduced the onset of potyvirus incidence. The use of maize and sweet potato with pepper also significantly (p<0.001) reduced the occurrence of potyvirus incidence. High incidences of potyvirus, 34.25% and 35.25%, were on control plots at Meskan and Mareko, respectively. The study showed that intercropping pepper with maize can serve as disease management strategy against potyvirus infection and aphid infestation. It also improves pepper yield.

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Jugal Bhandari, K.Hari Priya

ABSTRACT: The ECG signal provides important clinical information which could be used to pretend the diseases related with heart. So delineation of ECG signal is an important task. Whereas Delineation of P and T waves is a complex task.This paper deals with the Study of ECG signal and analysis of signal by means of Verilog Design of efficient Filters and MATLAB tool effectively. It includes generation & simulation of ECG signal, by means of real time ECG data, ECG signal filtering & processing by analysis of different algorithms & techniques. In this paper we design a basic particle filter which generates a dynamic model depending upon the present and past input samples and then produces the desired output .then the output will be processed by MATLAB environment to get the actual shape and accurate values of the ranges of P-wave and T-wave of ECG signal. In this paper Questasim a tool of mentor graphics is for simulation and functional verification. The same design is again verified using Xilinx ISE which will be also used for synthesis, mapping and bit file generation. Xilinx FPGA board will be used for implementation of system. The final results of FPGA shall be verified with ChipScope Pro where the output data can be observed.

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Lusekelo Kibona

ABSTRACT: The telecommunication sector has witnessed fast growth in the number of mobile telephone users now served by seven cellular operators. Until February 2012, there were about 26 million mobile phone subscribers served by more than 4,000 base stations spread all over the country (Tanzania) and this is due to increase in population. Despite the many advantages brought by services, there is increased public concern over possible adverse health effects due to electromagnetic fields (EMF) radiated by the mobile phone towers. The paper assesses the impact of the electromagnetic radiations from mobile phones towers to male sperm infertility. The electric field from the mobile phone tower placed at a certain distance from testis position were noted and then analysed by considering SAR relation to electric field from the tower to the testis. It was concluded that there is significant impact on the male sperm infertility on the exposure of the male reproductive organ to the radiations from the towers at the specified operating frequencies near the testis. Recommendations has been provided, that mobile phone towers should not be built nearby the area where most people are living as the distance between the two are so small to cause the male sperm infertility which is the long term effect that's why most people don't see that there are effects associated with those radiations.

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Haddis Yirga, Hussein Mohammed, Berhanu Abate

ABSTRACT: Cultivated Pisum is dominated with Pisum sativum subgroup, but Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum (Dekoko) is a unique subgroup developed and cultivated in Ethiopia. The objectives of the study were characterization of Dekoko accessions using 17 quantitative traits and study the genetic variability present in the population. Twenty-four accessions of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) collected from North Ethiopia (South Tigray and North Wello) by Alamata Agricultural Research Center, were planted in 3 replications of the RCBD design at Mekhan farmers' Training Centre in Endamekhoni in 2010. Considerable extent of genetic variability was available for days to flowering, leaf area index and crude protein content while the remaining quantitative traits did not show statistically significant variation in the population of Dekoko studied. Protein content ranged between 17.9% (T-018/08 Ko) to 38.4% (T-010/08 K. Traits such as days to flowering and maturity and leaf width had low Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation, Genotypic Coefficient of Variation and low genetic advance (<20%). Clustering of the accessions using quantitative traits indicated that the number of accessions in each cluster varied from 1 in cluster IV to 11 in cluster I.

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Reena Mary George

ABSTRACT: Protection of biometric data is of prime importance now a days. In this paper a new method is proposed for the protection of biometric facial data using visual cryptography and chaotic encryption. By using visual cryptography each private face image is decomposed into two public host images. The original image gets revealed only when both of these images are available simultaneously. By using chaotic encryption extra protection as well as privacy is ensured for these images. Chaotic encryption is applied onto each share. Any system having chaotic behaviour is used for getting values for encrypting the shares. Here 1D logistic map is used.

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Vismi V, Suvi V

Abstract: The paper "Brightness Preserved Resolution Enhancement Using DWT-SWT Technique" makes use of both wavelet and brightness preserving technique.The proposed technique focussing on increasing the resolution as well as preserving the brightness in the images. First DWT SWT [1]decomposes the input image separately. Thus it generates a pair of LL, LH, HL, HH. The bands from DWT undergo interpolation namely bicubic inorder to attain the size of SWT bands. The LL, LH, HL, HH from SWT need not interpolate as it has the same size as that of the input image. Then combine each of the high frequency subbands and generate estimated LH, HL, HH. Then interpolate the input image for getting the LL band. These all have to combine by using IDWT. Then perform Brightness Preserving Bi Histogram Equalisation (BBHE)[2].

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Suvarna Temgire, Poonam Gupta

ABSTRACT: Web prefetching is an important aspect to find the possibility of finding which object would be requested in near future. Demand of internet and easy accessibility of information, communication and flexibility had put gigantic pressures on the principal infrastructure of WWW. The World Wide Web is an immensely scattered and provides access to shared data with ease. Due to this there is a huge pressure on server with respect to information load, resulting in the compromise of service at the end user. Further, the load imbalances between the servers that arise from the severe nature of irregular web access essentially reflecting the underlying predictable and often unpredictable human nature is a concern from the resource deployment point of view. Besides, the media type adds further limitations to the whole process. But the cache management has many challenges in balancing the process of meeting the demands of the users on the one hand and ensuring optimal utilization of system resources on the other hand. Caching and pre-fetching is middle-aged technology widely used in many areas such as Database Systems and Operating Systems.

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Cdr Munshi Mahbubur Rahman

ABSTRACT: Technology plays a significant role in our daily lives; no doubt, it has made our lives very easy with its unlimited advantages. Cell Phone is one of such device that has made our life so easy that we cannot even think of a world without it. This electronic device has multiple uses and functions. It has become an important part and parcel of our life. Without cell phones we usually feel incomplete. Trendy and stylish cell phones have become a part of fashion now days. But this very device emits electromagnetic radiation which is the emerging health concern of the 21st century. There is too great a risk that the ever increasing RF-based communications technologies represent a real danger to humans, especially because of their exponential, ongoing and unchecked growth. Every aspect of electrohypersensitive peoples' lives, including the ability to work productively in society, have healthy relations and find safe, permanent housing, is at stake. The DNA in living cells recognizes electromagnetic fields at very low levels of exposure; and produces a biochemical stress response. The scientific evidence tells us that our safety standards are inadequate, and that we must protect ourselves from exposure to EMF due to power lines, cell phones and the risk of many more known/unknown consequences. The issue of electromagnetic health hazards should be addressed seriously and appropriate measures to be taken while there is still time. In this paper, I tried to focus on the salient aspects of health hazards and intend to grow awareness amongst the common mass in the days to come.

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Zahoor Ahmad Lone, Dr Shah Alam

Abstract: Cognitive neuroscientists and psychological researches are progressively showing how emotions play a crucial role in cognitive processes. Gradually, this knowledge is being used in artificial intelligence and artificial life areas in simulation and cognitive processes modeling. However, theoretical aspects of emotions to be employed in computational systems projects are barely discussed and touched emotional intelligence. The mystery of emotional intelligence has enthralled human beings over the years on the every dimension of life. Can human beings create machines that can be emotionally intelligent? This paper tries to present an informal overview of the robotic intelligence and how they are lagging behind in emotional intelligence.

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Nikita Chhillar, Nisha Yadav, Neha Jaiswal

ABSTRACT: A pattern is an entity, imprecisely described, that could be given a name, fingerprint, image, handwritten word, human face, speech signal, DNA sequence etc. Pattern recognition is the allocation of a label to a given input value. Pattern recognition algorithms usually intend to supply a logical answer for all probable inputs and to perform "most likely" and identical matching of the inputs, taking into account their statistical discrepancy. Pattern recognition is becoming ever more significant in the era of automation and information handling and retrieval. In order to categorize a set of objects and afterward on to identify a fresh or an already known one, one needs to gather, examine, store and process data in a significant way. Among the different conventional approaches of pattern recognition the statistical approach has been most thoroughly studied and used in practice. More recently, the addition of artificial neural network techniques theory have been receiving important considerations.

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Charles Kyom BIJIMI

ABSTRACT: The condition of cities in Nigeria has become very alarming today, considering the state of planning in the country. Many cities have grown haphazardly without a plan, making it take the form of a slum and shanty settlements; it is expected that urban design principle can be utilized to design a habitable and aesthetically pleasing environment. This paper seeks to discuss the ways in which urban sprawl can be managed with good urban design principles.

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Anam Srinivasa Reddy, P. Rama Krishna

High speed Viterbi decoder design for trellis coded modulation (TCM) is presented in this paper. It is well known that the Viterbi decoder (VD) is the dominant module for determining shortest path. We propose a pre-computation architecture incorporated with T-algorithm for VD, which can find the shortest path without degrading the decoding speed much. A general solution to derive the optimal pre-computation steps is also given in the paper. Implementation result of a VD for a rate-1/2 convolution code used in a TCM system shows that compared with the full trellis VD, with the constraint length 9. This work focuses on the realization of convolution encoder and adaptive Viterbi decoder (AVD) with a constraint length (K) of 9 and a code rate (k/n) of 1/2, Implemented on FPGA. The results are tested by using ISE 10.1 and Modelsim.

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Abhimanyu Chopra, Abhinav Prashar, Chandresh Sain

ABSTRACT: Language is way of communicating your words Language helps in understanding the world ,we get a better insight of the world. Language helps speakers to be as vague or as precise as they like. NLP Stands for natural language processing. . Natural languages are those languages that are spoken by the people.Natural language processing girdles everything a computer needs to understand natural language and also generates natural language.Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics mainly focuses on the interactions between computers and human languages or natural languages. NLP is focussed on the area of human computer interaction. The need for natural language processing was also felt because there is a wide storage of information recorded or stored in natural language that could be accessible via computers. Information is constantly generated in the form of books, news, business and government reports, and scientific papers, many of which are available online or even in some reports. A system requiring a great deal of information must be able to process natural language to retrieve much of the information available on computers. Natural language processing is an interesting and difficult field in which we have to develop and evaluate or analyse representation and reasoning theories. All of the problems of AI arise in this domain; solving "the natural language problem" is as difficult as solving "the AI problem" because any field can be expressed or can be depicted in natural language.

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Abhimanyu Chopra, Abhinav Prashar, Chandresh Saini

ABSTRACT: This research papers deals with significant issue in computer technology world. It is concerned with the software management processes that deals with the area of software development through the different development models, which are known as software project life cycle. There are mainly four development models i.e, waterfall, Iteration, V-shaped, spiral. These models have their own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the main aim of this research is to represent different software project models of software development and make a comparison between them to show the features and defects of each model.

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Viji. M

Abstract: Cooperative communication has become a tremendous interest in Wireless Network. This type of cooperative communication is used for improving the network capacity in wireless network by reducing the interference and also improving the transmission power. In a normal networking communication, require so much time to transmit the message from source system to destination system, even if a node failure in between the transmission time. The goal of this paper is to improve the network capacity in order to reduce the interference by increasing the transmission power. The existing paper discusses less improvements of network capacity in a single network. By the use of COCO(Capacity Optimized Cooperative) topology, increase in the network capacity by jointly considering both the link level physical layer issues( such as outage probability & outage capacity) and upper level network layer issues (such as network capacity, routing, topology control) and also time should be delayed, if a system failure during transmission. So, propose a shortest path algorithm called Dijkstra's algorithm is used for finding the shortest distance between systems.

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Santosh, Dr. Jenila Livingston L.M.

Abstract: The image segmentation is typically used to trace the object and boundaries such as line and curves in an image. The segmentation of the text reliability is necessary to perform the classification and Recognition. The main aim of segmentation is to partition the document image into various homogeneous regions such as text block, image block, line and word. In this paper we have introduced a clustering based neighbor method and Direction based line segmentation method for the image segmentation. First, Read the input image and remove the noise. Second, apply the top down segmentation approach to segment a document image into text lines. Third, the result of segmentation is set of segments that collectively cover entire images. *

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Iftakher Ahmed, Khan Md. Shibli Nomani

ABSTRACT: Variable frequency generation becomes necessary now a days for ever growing demand of industrial applications. Cycloconverter is such a device which generates variable frequency. The development of the semiconductor devices has made it possible to control the frequency of the cycloconverter according to the requirement and provide a huge amount of controlled power with the help of semiconductor switching devices like THYRISTOR, IGBT. Nowadays, in an up growing industrial sector different types of mechanical devices are use where the motors are playing a great role. However this types of synchronous and induction motors have more loss due to harmonic distortion of the variable frequency drives. The aim of this thesis is to design & analysis of a cycloconverter circuit with suitable power and minimized total harmonic distortion (THD).

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Deepa Thakur, Jyotsna Mishra

ABSTRACT: The antibiotic drug 2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl)-6H-purin-6-one has been quantitatively and qualitatively analysis by polarographic & amperometric process. Acyclovir give well identified wave in 1.0mkcl at pH5.00.2.Co (II)-Acyclovir complex studied in aqueous phase..The IR spectral data on the drug & its Co (II) complex indicate the co-ordination through nitrogen atom of azid group. The data showed a shift bands of azide group in complex from1634 cm 11651-cm-1.Hence the tentative structure of the complex has been suggested. The antibiotic activity of the complex has been determine by using paper disc method against Streptococcus A ,K. Pneumonia, Salmonella. Typhi, and Aspergillus. A ,etc .Looking at this inhabitation power against the different test pathogens..It presumed that the complex may be more potent at compare to the parent drug .Pharmacological study shows the toxicological or non toxicological study of complex drugs

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Ankush Saini, Inderjeet Singh Behl, Jaideep Verma

ABSTRACT: Synchronization is a critical operation in many parallel applications. Conservative Synchronization mechanisms are failing to keep up with the increasing demand for well-organized management operations as systems grow larger and network latency increases. The charity of this paper is threefold. First, we revisit some delegate bringing together algorithms in light of recent architecture innovation and provide an example of how the simplify assumption made by typical logical models of management mechanism can lead to significant performance guess errors. Second, we present an architectural modernism called active memory that enables very fast tiny operations in a shared-memory multiprocessor. Third, we use execution-driven simulation to quantitatively compare the performance of a variety of Synchronization mechanisms based on both existing hardware techniques and active memory operations. To the best of our knowledge, management based on active memory out forms all existing spinlock and non-hardwired difficulty implementations by a large border.

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Awaneesh kumar

Abstract: This project in its present form is the result of the question "Why Astronauts go to Space?" the initial idea was to find out the reason behind the same. After doing some research works finally the conclusion was that the astronauts get microgravity region in space, so that many experimental works may be done there which are not possible on earth due to gravity. Then it was found out what exactly Microgravity is? How and why is it so beneficial that space shuttles are being launched? Then some newly found methods of achieving Microgravity inside the earth's atmosphere have also been researched on. The results were Drop towers, Sounding rockets, Space shuttle and finally Airplane flying in a parabola. This project has some new areas of research included which would lead one to think beyond normal. Such as a unique way of achieving Microgravity on earth.

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