Open Access Journal of Scientific, Technology & Engineering Research

International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research (ISSN 2347-4289)

IJTEEE Volume 3 - Issue 5, May 2015 Edition - ISSN 2347-4289

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Puspal De, Sudipa Chakravarty, Amit Chakravarty, Tushar. Kanti. Saha

ABSTRACT: Purpose-In order to assess major chromosomal abnormalities among sick neonate with dysmorphic feature and delayed milestones in Kolkata, a chromosome aberration survey was initiated in collaboration with Dr. B. C. Roy Post Graduate Institute for Pediatric Science ( Kolkata) is in progress. Methods- In last two years, we have screened about 120 sick neonates (Indicated cases as per clinical findings). Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes were studied with High Resolution GTG-banding analysis by using Chromosome profiling (Cyto-vision software 3.6) on their chromosomes. Results- The result shows that among 120 patients 22 cases have chromosomal abnormality ( 2% cases ) and 36% ( 8 cases out of 22 ) have chromosomal structural variation in sick neonate with gross dysmorphic features with MR which is correlated with International Data. Conclusions- Present data shows 1% (total 22 cases) was affected with chromosomal anomalies represent about 1800 sick neonate screening in West Bengal Population in last two years. This report provides valuable addition to the growing literature in Birth Defects Database in India.

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Merry Sunaryo, Tri Martiana, Oedojo Soedirham

ABSTRACT: Diesel power plants are electric power that use diesel machine. Diesel machine has problem namely air pollution such as exhaust gas especially nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) derived from the combustion of diesel fuel, which can affect pulmonary function disorders. This study aimed to analyze factors that influenced pulmonary function disorder among the workers. This study using quantitative method with observational research and cross sectional by using logistic regression analysis wald test. Population of Respondent was totally 58 persons with 29 divisions of each in diesel power plants and in the office. Result of pulmonary function status known that the worker in diesel power plants more experience pulmonary function disorder with percentage 65.52% while 24.14%. Logistic regression analysis showing some factors influenced pulmonary function disorder (CI ± 95%) namely age, nutrition status, smoking habit, use of PPE, sport and period of working habit. Workers in diesel power plants more risky experience pulmonary function disorder compared with office worker. Risk factors caused pulmonary function disorder based on the highest risk namely nutrition status variable, personal-protection equipment, exercise habit, smoking habit, period of working and age.

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Minakshi Gujral, Satish Chandra

ABSTRACT: Knowledge discovery tools and techniques are used in an increasing number of scientific and commercial areas. They further augment the analysis and knowledge processing of voluminous Information. Expert finding systems are a web enabled Knowledge Discovery from databases frameworks. Lot has been talked about effective, accurate and well balanced expert recommendations but many shortcomings of the proposed solutions have come into picture. In this Paper we try to elucidate and model Expert Recommendation issues from multidimensional, multi-criteria and real world’s perspectives by evaluating some selected systems. Another aspect of expert recommendation prototype introduced in this paper is personalization. Due to information overload and other issues of recommendations, an internet user feels it difficult to search the expert information relevant to them. Local search is yet another field that faces this problem due to unavailability of expert, maturation effect of environment and changing patterns of user likings and Interest. This work portrays a personalized expert recommendation system which takes into account the profile attributes of a user and recommends results that are highly rated by other users of similar profile. The introduced method does not depend only on the ratings given by the user as a feedback but it also considers various other parameters which increase accuracy of recommendations. This prevents malicious results to be highly rated and recommended.

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Dita Amanda Deviani, Y. Denny Ardyanto W., Hari Basuki N.

Abstract: The main factors cause work accidents are unsafe condition and unsafe action. The majority of work accidents of 85% are caused by human factors with unsafe action. This study aims to analyze the relationship of individual factors with unsafe action toward chemical production workers in Gresik, East Java. This study is observational with cross sectional design. The population is production workers with 69 people, sampling technique using simple random sampling, with 59 people as a sample. The data collected using an interview through out questionnaire, observation using checklist unsafe action observation and documentations. The data analyzed descriptively and inferential analysis using logistic regression. The results of study show that respondent with 24-31 years old and 32-39 years old did unsafe action low category compared with age respondent of ≥ 40 years old. Respondents who have a work period <5 years did unsafe action low category compared with respondents who have work period >10 years. There is a relationship of age and work period with unsafe action, based on the coefficient score B, variable of work period is the most influential independent variable toward dependent variable.

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Sunder T. Kelkar, Prakash A. Mahanwar

ABSTRACT: In present work lactic acid is produced by microbial fermentation of sugar obtained from tamarind kernel powder (TKP) and its feasibility has been studied for use as raw replacement for glucose. Saccharification of tamarind seed powder is carried out by acid hydrolysis using sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Optimization of acid catalyst concentration and hydrolysis time was carried out in a steam autoclave to get higher yield in short time. The highest yield of reducible sugar of 0.71 g/g of substrate has been obtained by using 0.5 N H2SO4 at 121°C, in 30 min. This tamarind kernel hydrolyzate (TKH) after neutralization and charcoal treatment is used as a source of reducible sugar for production of lactic acid. Four commonly used lactobacillus strains were used to study the suitable microorganism for the fermentative production of lactic acid from TKH sugar media. Out of them the strain giving better result Lactobacillus casei -2125, is selected for the further studies. The rate of glucose consumption and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei -2125 for standard glucose media and for TKH sugar media was studied in batch fermentation. The results for the standard media of glucose and the TKH was comparable and show nearly 90% conversions in 66 to 72 hour of reaction time, respectively. It gives production of lactic acid up to 81 gl-1 with productivity rate of 1.12g / l / hr. A yield of 0.58 g of lactic acid is obtained from each gram of TKP. It shows that the TKP can be used as a suitable and cheap raw material for the lactic acid production.

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D. Balaji, Mr. K. Vinoth

Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) private power system is an indispensable use of renewable imperativeness. The parallel-joined setup of PV modules instead of the arrangement joined design wound up discernible considering the security necessities and making full utilization of the PV made force for the PV private period structure. In this paper, a novel delicate exchanging voltage-encouraged full scaffold front-end converter-based inverter. The gadget voltage is clasped commonly by auxiliary regulation without dynamic cinching circuit or latent snubber. Zero-current exchanging of essential gadgets and zero-voltage exchanging of optional gadgets is accomplished. Delicate exchanging is innate owing to proposed auxiliary adjustment, load autonomous, and is kept up amid wide variety of info voltage and force exchange limit, and hence is suitable for PV applications.

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Maarifah Dahlan, Tjipto Suwandi, Linda Dewanti

ABSTRACT: Pesticides of systemic class widely used by farmers in Indonesia, including those in Kelurahan Pattapang, are organophosphates with profenofos as the active substance. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with blood cholinesterase activity in the families of horticultural farmers spraying organophosphate insecticides in Kelurahan Pattapang. Methods: This study was a quantitave and observational-analytical survey with a cross-sectional design. Population was the families of farmers spraying organophosphates, as much as 175 people. A sample of 92 people, consisting of 46 husbands and 46 wives, was selected by using the simple random sampling technique. Results: Results of the examination of blood cholinesterase activity showed an average value of 11400 U/L with a minimum value of 7304 U/L and maximum value of 16882 U/L. Results of the biner logistic regression analysis indicated that a poor personal hygiene had a 4-times higher risk for decreased cholinesterase activity compared with a good personal hygiene. The more the personal protective equipment (PPE) were used, the less the chance for cholinesterase activity (0.2 times), and for each one-hour increase in blood sampling and spraying interval the risk of ChE ˂11.400 would be increased by 1.4 times. Conclusion: Protecting the body by using PPE and keeping the body clean after having contact with pesticides can help the families of farmers to avoid from the decrease cholinesterase activity.

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Mercy Nafula Juma

ABSTRACT: The ultimate goal of cdf is development. In Kiminini constituency, some education projects have not been implemented successfully. This in itself undermines development in the constituency. This study aimed at determining how specific factors do influence implementation of constituency development funded projects in public secondary schools in Kiminini to accomplish this aim the study focused on three objectives: to establish factors that led to successful implementation of cdf projects in Public Secondary schools within Kiminini constituency; to determine factors that led to unsuccessful implementation of some cdf projects in public secondary schools within Kiminini constituency contrary to plan and finally to determine how identified factors influence project implementation. The study used descriptive survey research design sample sizes of 324 people were from intended beneficiaries of the project and stakeholders. The target populations were drawn from Nabiswa, Kiungani, Kiminini locations and cdf office in Kiminini. Purposeful sampling was used to identify 109 schools with projects funded by CDF out of which the researcher then used random sampling to identify 45 schools with projects funded by CDF using SSP. Data was collected by use of structured questionnaire, interview schedule and observation. The data was then analyzed by use of stastical package for social scientists to yield mean, variance and percentages. The results obtained have been presented in the form of tables. The findings were as follows: The existence of adequate funds facilitated the successful of projects, however a number of factors contributed to projects not being implemented as planned such as lack of community participation in selecting the projects; mismanagement of funds; ineffective M&E Mechanism, lack of political goodwill and finally inability to prioritize the school projects in terms of needs. based on the foregoing findings several conclusion were arrived at, proper management of funds enhances successful implementation of projects, project identification, effective M&E, Community participation in selecting of projects, political good will, priotizing projects in terms of school need have a significance influence on implementation of cdf funded projects in public secondary schools and this factors do complement each other in determining the success or failure of a project. The recommendations are that the government should establish a legal and regulatory framework to govern the operations of cdf funded projects at constituency level, thus promoting accountability and transparency in the management of the said projects.CDF committee members should comprise of the technical team well vast with project management skills with them cases of aborted projects will be minimal.

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Rajesh T. Peche, Dr. Sanjay S. Jamkar, Dr. Parag A. Sadgir

ABSTRACT: From the immemorial time water has been the part of all basic human activities. The water we are most concerned with is fluid and fresh and is least available. As economic activities are growing, the demand of water is also growing. At the same time increase in population is lowering per capita availability of fresh water. Exploiting more and more water resources would put more pressure on environment- ecology which has already become fragile. As per all codes of concrete the water used for mixing and curing should possibly be the potable water. Constructional activities play major role in infrastructural development. Water has undisputed important place in civil construction and so far no alternative to water is available.Chemical limits of water for concrete, suggested by different codes of concrete indicate that non potable water can be used as mixing water. Reuse of non-potable water like grey water can reduce the pressure on fresh water resources.On this background, investigations on all possible uses of all types of waste water in construction industry, is the need of the hour. Present study has been conducted to investigate the influences of use of grey water o properties of cement.

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Alan Alex, Dr.Pratheeba Paul

ABSTRACT: This paper aims at the suitability of Electrocoagulation for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The process was evaluated with a laboratory scale model with Aluminum anode and stainless steel cathode due to its high efficiency in the removal of apparent color and organic matter. The experiment was conducted with municipal wastewater. The initial and final characterization of wastewater is done for various parameters and the Electrocoagulation is evaluated for the highest efficiency. The optimal condition COD removed found to be was 80.70% and Total Solids was 61.38% at 25 minutes of electrolysis time, 10V applied potential and 2cm inter electrode distance. Also the floating and settling behavior of the sludge is studied.

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Aravinda Ravibhanu Sumanarathna

Abstract: Amateur observational astronomy is the unlimited hobby of learning about the universe and observing as the base of astronomy.It can be divided five major types of amateur observing as observing with your unaided eyes [naked eye] without optical aids, Observing with binoculars, observing with telescopes , observing with cameras that use film and electronic technologies & Astronomy spectroscopy, Each kind of observing is based on learning how to use different types of observing equipment. Sky is a natural laboratory for every amateur astronomers in the world,But The sky that our students can observe is not impressive. In the 21st century images are of outstanding importance, the appearance of the sky is awful. From many cities it is not possible to look at the sky, but when we find a space between the buildings to see the sky, the light pollution reduces the full numbers of visible stars to a few.How ever if could going through the barriers of observation astronomy, its become as part of our life. Then we can look at the sky to rediscover the stories of our ancestors & Promote positive feelings towards astronomy and towards science in general.Thus amateur astronomers can help people to discover and taste the adventure of a new knowledge by means of simple observations using the naked eye, binoculars, amateur telescopes or public observatories & Impress upon humanity the beauty of natural phenomena also you can be step forward for keep something so wonderful.

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Upasana, Dr. Anu Mehra

ABSTRACT: This paper shows the execution correlation between the different delicate figuring methods utilized for advancement of the PID controllers, executed for velocity control system for the cruise control system. PID controllers are widely utilized as a part of mechanical control in view of their straight forwardness and heartiness, however when mechanical control is risked by outer glitches, prompts the shakiness of the system. PID controller streamlining utilizing delicate registering calculations lays accentuations on acquiring the best conceivable PID parameters for enhancing the solidness of the system. The PID controller has been actualized for pace control of a system and the outcomes got from improvement utilizing delicate registering are contrasted and the ones got from the Ziegler-Nichols strategy, and relatively better results are gotten in Genetic algorithm case.

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Jeeshna P. V., Kuttimalu V. K.

ABSTRACT: Video synopsis is the process of preserving key activities and eliminates the less important parts to create a short video summary of long original videos. These techniques are used for fast browsing, ectracting big data, effective storing and indexing. The video synopsis techniques are broadly classified into two types: object based approaches and frame based approaches. But these approaches cannot handle the complexity of the dynamic videos. In object movement method focus on the movements of a single video object, and remove the redundancies present in the object movement, it helps to generate the more compact and efficient video synopsis. Video synopsis is the most popular research in computer graphics and computer vision area and several researches started on this area. Naturally this is not a complete review of the entire video synopsis techniques. In this review focuses some of the video synopsis techniques.

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Monika M, Dr. Shanta Rangaswamy

ABSTRACT: In the recent years, a technology for communication in underwater has been rapidly progressed. Underwater communication methods include radio wave, optical and acoustic communication. Acoustic communication is considered as the ideal communication and is used in aqua applications monitoring of severe weather events, anthropogenic disturbances. So it is necessary to develop the network protocols for UAN’s, development, testing and validation of these protocols rely on simulations, as real sea experiments requires huge infrastructure investments. So study of open source simulators, emulator such as SUNSET, DESERT, Aqua Net Mate, and Aqua-Sim has gained importance. In this paper we survey the characteristics of these simulators and also carry out comparison between them.

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Abdalraman Mohamed Salih. Dr. Mohamed Abdalla Omer

ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study are to evaluate Jatropha seeds for oil, and biogas production by using seed cake. The seeds were chemically analysed following the AOAC, 1990 method [1]. The chemical analyses of the Jatropha seeds indicated that the wild Jatropha seeds have high moisture content (5.4%), ash content (6.6%) and oil content (33.2 %) compared with cultivated one which showed 4.43% moisture content, 5.2% ash content and 24.2% oil content. The seeds of cultivated Jatropha have high protein (20.2%) and carbohydrate (10.3%) compared with wild Jatropha which showed 18.5% protein and 0.9% carbohydrate while both are similar in fiber content (35.6, 35.7 %). Based on the chemical analysis the wild Jatropha seed cake was tested for biogas and bio-fertilizer production. The chemical analysis of the seed cake showed that the seed cake has 6.3% moisture and 93.7% total solid. Out of these 54.4% is organic carbon and 39.2% protein. It has 0.9% Phosphorus, 6.3 % nitrogen and the C/N ratio was 9:1. On the hand digested slurry showed 6.65% protein and 5.3% phosphorus. It is obvious that fermentation of seed cake resulted in substantial increase of phosphorus. The seed cake was fermented to investigate the potentiality for biogas and bio-fertilizer production. One kilogram of seed cake produced 24 liters of biogas. Microbiological investigation indicated that the microorganisms involved in the fermentation process were Bacillus and Lactobacillus bacte-ria. The pH was acidic (5.5) at the beginning of fermentation process (zero time), it reached 8.0 after 6 hr, then dropped to 6.5 after 24 hr and became more acidic (4.5) after 72 hr.

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Minakshi Gujral, Satish Chandra

ABSTRACT: The Expert Finding Systems are gaining focus in Universities, HR, Medical and Project Management systems. These systems are way ahead of recommendation systems, which are an extensive class of Web applications that involve predicting user responses to options. Expert Finding Systems look beyond the best-fit expert to solve the end user’s problems. These problems can be a query regarding some item, solution, service or trouble shooting some case scenario. This area of research encompasses Artificial Intelligence, Web application engineering and also Software Engineering used to validate the simulated responses of this system. This paper talks about an expert finding system in pet domain. The expertise in Pet Domain can be in form of Doctor, trainer, breeder, groomer or Dog Shelter organizations. The real challenges are to recognize the problem scenario, understand the user, data and the environment, taking care of feasibility and then giving the novice user, the best fit solution for his pet. The goal is requirement analysis for best fit search foraying in array of choices of this ever changing E-world and Recommendation architecture which provides contemporary problems in every search engine and recommendation system’s research. This paper addresses all this and assists the user to find their requirements easily and undermine the information overloading as well as over specialization problems along with other recommendation issues.

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V.R.Ghodke, H.V.Shinde, A.S.Gaikwad, A.J.Gade, P.D.Khaire

ABSTRACT: Pump is device that moves a fluids by mechanical action.It can consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid.In hydraulic power systems, variable displacement pumps save power,increase the productivity or control the motion of load precisely,safely and in economical manner.The displacement varying mechanism and power to weight ratio of variable displacement piston pump makes them most suitable for high power levels.

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Nwosu, O. B

Abstract: Gamma ray shielding experiments and simulation of it with MCNP code was carried out with three metallic materials; Copper, Aluminium and Lead using 10mCi 0.662KeV Cs-137 gamma ray source. The study was to understand the attenuation strength of these materials in relation to one another; and the behaviour of the emergent photon intensities in relation to the thickness of the shield. These materials of different thicknesses were placed in turns behind the radiation source and the emergent radiation was counted using NaI (TI) detector. These arrangements were again simulated using MCNP4c codes and the results equally presented and compared with that from the experiment.It was discovered that photon shields, unlike those for charged particles, are governed by the exponential decay law and the flux of shielded photons is a complex mixture of scattered and unscattered photons; and that increase in the thickness of the absorber lowers the photo peak intensity detected.It was equally noticed that while only 0.6cm thickness of lead was required to reduce the gamma photon intensity to half of its original value, about 1.8cm of Copper and 3.6cm of aluminium was required to do the same work lead has done, showing lead as a far better absorber of gamma photon than copper and aluminium and can be used to shield against gamma ray; in turn, copper is a better absorber than aluminium. The relationship in the absorbing properties of these three materials in terms of their half thickness th1/2could be expressed thus:th1/2lead =1/3th1/2copper = 1/6th1/2aluminium. Interesting to note isthe striking similarities between the two sets ofgraphs fromMCNP simulation and experiment.This goes to show the simulation work as veritable tool for modelling certain real life situations, and very useful in particles transport equations.

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Prachi Mishra, Shipra Swapnil, Dr. E. Kanniga

ABSTRACT: Mining is one of the most dangerous industries in the world. Frequently we here the accidents taking place in mines. The life of workers hence is at a great risk. A reliable system is therefore needed to establish an adequate communication between the mines and the monitoring section. The wireless sensors and the voice alert along with RFID risks involved and take appropriate measures. The presence of any harmful gas can also be detected with the system by tags installed at various places in the mines. This saves the personnel from life threatening situations.

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Alak Chandra Deka, Swapan Kumar Sinha

ABSTRACT: Chemical pesticides are resistant to biodegradation beside carcinogenic in nature even at trace levels. Effort to remove pesticide by conventional methods has several inherent disadvantages of longer time or cost and this bottleneck can be avoided by utiliz-ing nanoparticles as it can mineralise at a faster rate. Nanoparticles are syntheised by reduction of metal ions using physical, chemical and biological process either alone or in combination. In the present study biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) using hydrophilic fungal secretes (HFS) of Penicillium pinophilum and degradation of chlorpyrifos pesticides in different pH environment has been reported. The AgNPs formed were characterized by using UV-Visible spectrum, FTIR and XRD. The HFS is the supernant of 72h incubated 10 g of mycelial mat in 100 ml deionized water at 28°C. AgNPs were synthesized by the reaction of HFS with 1 mM silver nitrate solution at 1:5 ratio. The spectrophotometric absorption peak at 420 nm is due to the Surface Plasmon response (SPR) properties of AgNPs. FTIR anlysis of HFS revealed functional groups are 1096 cm-1 (C-O & C-C Stretch), 1664 cm-1 (C=C Stretch), 2907 cm-1 (C-H Stretch), 2931 cm-1 (C-H Stretch), 3475 cm-1 (O-H, N-H Stretch). The outranking of functional groups in Ag+ reduction using depletion percent of FTIR bands before and after reaction revealed the O-H (Alcohols, phenols) and C-H (Alkenes) functional groups showed highest (>40%) whereas functional group esters were the lowest (<10%). AgNPs was examined by the XRD pattern of diffraction peaks showed at 2θ values of 32.23°, 46.18°, 64.82° and 77.21° assigned to the planes of (111), (200),(220) and (311) faced centre cubic (fcc) of silver nanoparticles. The chlorpyrifos degradation by AgNPs showed highest in mild acidic (pH-6) followed by alkaline (pH 9) and astrong acidic (pH 0.3) environment.

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Arun Kumar, .S, Nikitha. P, Sundarajan. S

ABSTRACT: Big data which is an derivational application of Hadoop distributed file system plays a crucial role in cloud computing environment. The major factor considered here is the privacy related issues in cloud computing that are associated with hadoop big data. Organizations, enterprises, companies, marketing agencies and many large and small scale sector industries rely upon big data applications. Globalization of computing assets may be the biggest contribution the cloud has made to date. For this reason, the cloud is the subject of many complex geopolitical issues. The outsourcing feature of cloud computing is widely dependent upon some of the basic security requirements like storage privacy, data confidentiality, anonymity, auditability and search pattern privacy.Hence, cloud environment offers all these facilities available to its users with a built-in infrastructure that incorporates technologies, policies, controls and big data tools to protect the data. Moreover, cloud computing and big data is about to promote many innovative frontiers in science.

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Charvi Sharma, Shashi B. Rana, Harjit Singh

ABSTRACT: In this paper, a modified bowtie microstrip patch antenna is designed and simulated by using software HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) software. This modified antenna is first designed and simulated and then further analysed for various parameters like return loss, VSWR, Radiation pattern, gain etc. In this work, for simulation purpose we have used ArlonCuClad 217 (tm) as dielectric material. We have modified the basic bowtie antenna by doing some modification in its structure i. e. on its arms. In simulation result we have achieved return loss below -10 dB. This simulated antenna has broad application in the field of satellite communication. Proposed model has been validated for various results like VSWR, antenna gain and radiation pattern.

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Bramarambika Thota, Udaya Kanchana Kumar .P

ABSTRACT: The usage of smart phones equipped with GPS navigation unit have increased rapidly from 3% to more than 20% in the past five years. Hence, a smart phone can be used efficiently for personal safety or various other protection purposes especially for women. This paper presents Sauver, a personal safety application developed for smart phones of android platform. This app can be activated by a single click when the user feels she is in danger .This application communiqués the user’s location to the registered contacts for every few seconds in the form of message. Thus, it acts like a sentinel following behind the person till the user feels she is safe. The key features of this application are along with the user’s location, one of the registered contacts gets a call. Also, the registered contacts and GPS location are saved from time to time in a database.

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Mohammad Abdul Motalib, Rodel D. Lasco, Enrique P. Pacardo, Carmelita M. Rebancos, Josefina T. Dizon

Abstract: The main source of air pollution in Dhaka City is emissions from brick kilns. This study assessed the main factors that affect the city’s air pollution levels, as well as the contribution of the different types of brick kilns located in different zones in Dhaka. The significance of air pollution variable and the health impact were examined and policy analysis with respect to kiln type was done. The specific variables analyzed were PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, NO2, CO, and O3; of these only PM10 and PM2.5 exceeded the Bangladesh air quality standards and those prescribed under the World Health Organization air quality guidelines. The study found that vertical shaft brick kilns (VSBK) had the lowest PM10 and PM2.5 emissions, whereas the zigzag types were the second lowest emitters. But in terms of SOx and CO emission, zigzag, gave the lowest values. For CO2, the hybrid hoffman kiln (HHK) had the lowest emission. The PM10 and PM2.5 data from the brick kilns were used in the health effect model and it was shown that zigzag kilns’ emissions can be reduced by 60%; VSBK, by 83%; and HHK, by 57%. These results can be used to avoid harmful health effects and to determine the disability-adjusted life year, as well as save on health care cost.

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Melanie Patsy Fernandes, Prof. Venkatesh S., Dr. Subhash Narayanan, V. G. Prabitha

ABSTRACT: Multi-spectral Diffuse Reflectance imaging provides information of the tissue transformation towards malignancy which can be studied by the diffused reflectance of the intense white light by the cervical tissues at the absorption peaks of the oxygenated haemoglobin at 545 and 575 nm. This technique can be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of tissue abnormalities in cervical cancer. The presence of specular reflection and the motion artifacts associated with sequential recording of images degrade the quality of the DR images. This paper reviews the various image processing algorithms and assess their potential for improving the quality of multi-spectral DR images of cervix and the ability to identify the most malignant site for cervical tissue biopsy. This will help in the establishment of Multi-Spectral Diffuse Reflectance Imaging system as a screening technique for the early detection of cervical cancer.

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Shani.S.Das, Rejimoan .R

ABSTRACT: Database contains huge amount of data. In order to make the query retrieval easier the content of the database is much organized. The query language used to retrieve the data stored in the database is SQL. In addition to the organized structure of data in the database there exists many query optimization techniques to make the query retrieval fast. SQL statements are declarative. That means SQL query can be written in different ways to retrieve the same query result. It is trivial to find which organization of the SQL query retrieve is query result with a minimum time. This paper discusses various optimizer approaches used for query retrieval from database and finds the better approach among them. The various query optimizer approaches discussed in this paper is Cost based ,Heuristic based and Learning based . Cost based approach focus on the statistics of the relations . Heuristic approach works based on certain predefined rules and Learning based approach works by correcting the incorrect statistics used to execute the query.

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Shani.S.Das, Rejimoan.R

ABSTRACT: Internet is a place of various information and it contains huge amount of data. As the web content rises, it became difficult to organize and manage the data. These datas must be organised in such a way that the search engine must be able to retrieve it efficiently.Various methods are there which helps to improve the search results in search engines by inferring user search goals.Users all over the world have different views and requirements for searching. Most of the search goals coincide.It is the function of the search engine to satisfy the user search goals.Analyzing user search goals is a best practice to make the search results efficient.These sessions are called feedback sessions which helps to infer user search goals.

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Sonalika Bhagat, Dr. Jyoteesh Malhotra

ABSTRACT: The number of users are increasing with more and more applications and more demand. At the same time, high transmission data rates and communication reliability have become a significant requirement. The LTE and LTE-Advanced are developed by 3GPP. The LTE-Advanced features improvements in spectral efficiency, peak data rates and user experience relative to the LTE. With a maximum peak data rate of 1Gbps, LTE-Advanced has been approved by the ITU as an IMT-Advanced technology. LTE achieve its various goals through its different transmission modes that help in enhancement of data rates. In this paper, I have studied the performance of various transmission modes used in LTE and their comparison with each other is done by the use of MATLAB.

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