IJTEEE

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International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research (ISSN 2347-4289)
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IJTEEE Volume 2 - Issue 5, May 2014 Edition - ISSN 2347-4289

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Hatem M. Abdul Kader, Mohie M. Hadhoud, Salah M El-Sayed, Diaa Salama AbdElminaam

ABSTRACT: With the increasing use of smartphones devices, mobile applications with richer functionalities are becoming ubiquitous but mobile devices are limited by their resources for computing and power consumption. Cloud the place for abundant resources. Clouds provide opportunity to do huge computations quickly and accurately so we can use cloud for mobile computations. Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) which combines mobile computing and cloud computing, has become one of a major discussion thread in the IT world in the recent few years. We developed an architecture that uses cloud to do computations that consume resources badly on mobiles. It aims at finding the right spots in an application automatically where the execution can be partitioned and migrated to the cloud. Thus, an elastic application can augment the capabilities of a mobile device including computation power, storage, and network bandwidth, with the light of dynamic execution configuration according to device’s status including CPU load, memory, and battery level. We demonstrate results of the proposed application model using data collected from one of our elastic application.

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Hatem M. Abdul Kader, Mohie M. Hadhoud, Salah M El-Sayed, Diaa Salama AbdElminaam

ABSTRACT: Mobile applications are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and provide ever richer functionality on mobile devices. At the same time, such devices often enjoy strong connectivity with more powerful machines ranging from laptops and desktops to commercial clouds. Despite increasing usage of mobile computing; using its full potential is difficult due to its inherent problems such as limited resource. Cloud computing can address these problems by executing mobile applications on resource providers external to the mobile device. The founda-tion of cloud computing is the delivery of services, software and processing capacity over the Internet, reducing cost, increasing storage, automating systems, decoupling of service delivery from underlying technology, and providing flexibility and mobility of information In this paper, we developed an architecture that uses cloud to do computations that consume resources badly on mobiles. It aims at finding the right spots in an application automatically where the execution can be partitioned and migrated to the cloud. Thus, an elastic application can augment the capabilities of a mobile device including computation power, storage, and network bandwidth, with the light of dynamic execution configuration according to device’s status memory, and battery level. We demonstrate results of the proposed application model using data collected from one of our elastic application..

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Kadeghe G Fue, Michael P.J. Mahenge, Lazaro S.P. Busagala

ABSTRACT: In past eras, a variety of results release approaches and systems have been proposed. And as technology keeps improving every day and night, numerous of them have been transformed from traditional paper to computerized and web-based format in recent years. Higher learning institutions with large number of students like Sokoine university of Agriculture face challenges in handling and releasing examination results leading to high cost and delay accessibility by students. Sokoine University of Agriculture and many other universities in East Africa particularly Tanzania have been using the computerized format of processing exams using Microsoft Excel which in turn leads to many complications and mostly notably excel formulas which are unknown to most of them. This paper proposes the web-based examination results release information system for cost effective strategies in East African academic institutions. It is urgent to come up with a solution that will cater short term demands of institutions like SUA and many others. Though, the proposed system involves only results releasing module but it’s urgent for the institutions that have a significant financial constraints. The proposed system is able to display results for each student and is able to accept the results from the examination officers. The system is intended to make sure that each student gets his/her results on-line without any hassle. Since, the system is proposed for financial constraints institution; hence it is not suitable for long term solution. Instead, this is recommended to be used for temporary services only.

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Togtokhbuyan Lkhagvasuren

ABSTRACT: Small and medium sized enterprises (SME's) play important role in to enhance economy of any country, in Mongolia it is not only help to develop economy of the country but as same time it is source to create new jobs for unemployed. As larger firms downsize and outsource more functions, the weight of SMEs in the economy is increasing. In Mongolia, most potential business sector completely rely on marketing for its growth and ventures. This is evident of majority of business enterprises in other sectors, falling out of business a few seasons after its inceptions. Among all business sectors food processing and manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and textile industries are highly growing business in Mongolia. Focusing these points a study was undertaken with wide objectives to investigate the current problems with marketing in Mongolia related to small and medium sized enterprises (SME's) with marketing techniques, which allows businesses to establish competitive advantage and compete effectively with substitute products. These techniques were briefly analyzed in Mongolia. According to the findings that small firms need to upgrade their management skills, their capacity to gather information and their technology base. Along with governments need to improve SME access to financing, information infrastructures and international markets. Providing regulatory, legal and financial frameworks conducive to entrepreneurship and small firm start-up and growth is a priority.

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Lalita Gavit, Reenal Sanghavi, Manasi Parab, Prof. Mohini P. Sardey

ABSTRACT: A single camera is not capable of covering large areas. Hence, we use multiple cameras which are placed in different sections of the area to be covered. The cameras are placed with overlapping region between field of view (FOV) of different cameras. Each camera will capture the video of its FOV. The system is intelligent enough to track people successfully in multiple perspective imagery, by establishing correspondence between objects captured in multiple cameras. Thus, it saves the tedious job of manual tracking. The methodology used to track the object is the BLOCK METHOD ANALYSIS which works on the principle of prediction. A search window for each object in the frame is acquired which helps in giving us the trajectory of the object. Continuity of this process in each frame will give the track of the object. For tracking multiple objects, the system will give labeling to every object in the frame.There can be a possibility where one object will be hidden by another object in the FOV of any one of the cameras. This problem is referred to as occlusion. In such a situation, the tracking of the hidden object should not be stopped. Hence, occlusion needs to be detected and removed. Our system deals with this problem. This project will be useful in surveillance. Need of surveillance is to monitor people or objects in areas like car parking, hotels etc for security purpose. Use of such a system will be beneficial in places which require less labour and more efficiency. Thus, it is used for public benefit.

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S.Raju, K.Sanjay, T.Sathish Kumar, B.Madhini

ABSTRACT: The design and development of semi-autonomous vehicle to prevent accident and to provide safety to the passenger as well as to the surrounding. Obstacle avoidance system where the human driver has full control of the vehicle until the system detects that the vehicle is headed for a collision or is too close to an obstacle for safety. When hazard is detected, the system will take control of the vehicle, alters the movement and then hand over the control back to driver. We monitor the distance between the obstacle and the vehicle to identify occurrence of abnormality, it also allows the driver to follow traffic rules like if the signal glows red the vehicle has to stop, the cameras placed in the vehicle senses the signal color and alters the vehicle mobility. The proposed system is implemented with the help of ultrasonic sensor, camera module and raspberry pi.

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Lourdu nancy.P, T.Anna Sudha M.E.

Abstract: ECG generated waveforms are used to find patterns of irregularities in cardiac cycle in patients. In order to provide continuous monitoring of cardiac functions for real time diagnosis we propose a methodology that combines compression and analysis of heart beat. In this paper an efficient ECG signal compression method based on wavelet transform is presented. The proposed method combines the adapted SPIHT compression. The tests of this compression can be performed on many ECG records. We propose a new approach for heartbeat classification based on combination of morphological and dynamic features using GK clustering. The GK clustering classifies the signal better than SVM because GK clustering technique compares the training and testing data’s not only based on the simple threshold also based on the more number of features for comparison.

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Suganya M.S, Sahaya Stalin Jose G.

Abstract: Data sampled by sensor nodes have huge redundancy,data aggregation becomes an valuable technique to remove redundancy, reduce the number of transmission, and then to save power. The packets from distinctive applications can be aggregated by, introducing the idea of packet attribute, which is used to recognize the packets from distinctive applications according to particular necessities. Then propose an attribute aware data aggregation (ADA) which can create the packets with the related attribute convergent as much as possible. Potential Based Dynamic Routing(PBDR) is elaborated to put up with an ADA strategy shortest path. There is a chance for path crash in PBDR. Caching Based Dynamic Routing is designed for recover consistency. CBDR achieves availability by incorporating not only an inventive content file available in storage space but also every copies in caches into the routing process. Especially, it adaptably takes into relation copies in caches which tend to have a superior volatile performance due to a replacement scheme. Thus Caching Based Dynamic Routing (CBDR) provides consistent move of the aggregated packets to the sink node along the shortest path.

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P. Kaviya Priya, V. Radha

ABSTRACT: Location based Multicast Addressing (LMA) is a technique used to distribute information to the multiple nodes surrounded by a particular geographical area. It mainly applied for context aware applications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this Location matching process done between middleware of publish/subscribing environment. In this paper introduce, one new feature is implemented for creating context awareness among mobile network to analyze how many users are currently located in the mobile network, and how many of them discarded from the network because of low energy level. The Bandwidth of each node is calculated to know the energy level status. Some of nodes in mobile network utilize more bandwidth. Allocate bandwidth equally to all nodes to avoid packet dropping and also identify the nodes information using keys provided by AES algorithm it is also helpful to improve security in mobile network. General Terms: Publish/Subscribe, Middleware

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Okuntade Tope Femi

Abstract: The study examined the effects of faulty design and construction on the maintenance of building. A survey of randomly selected samples of 35 builders and 20 architects were conducted. Questionnaires were used to collect data from Architects and Builders. The survey included 4 groups of defects and sub defects in each groups. The predominant severity effects of each defects was assessed and ranked based on the severity index as ranked by both the Builders and the Architects. The results shows that 16 defects were rated as most severe, 19 as moderately severe and 12 defects as slightly severe defects, however according to the builders 15 defects were rated as most severe defects, 28 defects as moderately severe and 3 defects as slightly severe defects. The results also show that increase in maintenance work is the most predominant effects on building maintenance among other factors of defect with an index value of 100.00 as perceived by both the rank of the Architects and that of the builders. The research however includes a hypothesis that Architects and Builders generally agree on the ranking of the severity defects which was tested and proven to be true. The study concluded that there should be a design review before finally approving the design for construction; maintenance expert should not be overlooked in the planning stage of the project and most importantly the employment of professionals for any building projects.

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P. Jaswanth, P. Pavan Kumar Arthik Daniel Das, Dr. R. Nedunchelian

Abstract: Electricityisthebasicneedsofourlife. We can’timagineonemoment ofourlifewith outelectricity. Preventionofelectricitytheft andsavingofelectricityisrequiredtousethe electricitycontinuously.Inthispaper,wepro-posed automatic electricity bill generation.This replaces the previous methods of generatingelectricity bill like 1. An electrician comes to the house, take thereadings from the energy meter and generate bill from the bill calculator 2. In this method their will be a transreceivertion. with an micro controller at one place and eachmeter readings of all the houses areting itself. taken and bill is generated, this bill is taken to the housesby a person 3. In this method we use gsm or gprs for sending the information about the electricity power co-nsumption, amount to be paid for the power through sms 4. Recently we have a prepaid method of generating the bill for saving the power consumption In the above methods the person is needed to de-liver the bills or in some cases which uses network their will be network problems. We have proposed a new method called automatic electricity bill gener In this the bill is generated near the energy-meter itself at the start time of the month by calcula

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B. Shanmuga Sundari, Essaki Durai.K, Srinivasan.S

Abstract: As long as in a common world, blind people cannot attend any exam in online. And none of any available Website provides such a facility. So far blind people have been in an internet for browsing and interacting with the help of such a technology which provide it, for example, website through voice recognition (Google voice). In our project we will be going to deliver an entire website for blind people which can provide an interface. The interface provides a voice facility to give the questions as well as options and the answer will be given by the blind people through limited buttons in the keyboard. So that a blind people can easily access like a common man without any difficulty. Due to this a blind people can also do an online exam. This will improve the current educational system for blinds career.

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Dr. R. P. Sharma, Ms. Namrata Maheshwari

Abstract: Environmentalism has fast emerged as a worldwide phenomenon. Today many sectors have accepted their responsibility to take green initiatives for protecting the planet. The automobile companies are also moving towards saving the environment through Green Cars. The green technology in car is a new trend but is the only option to save environment from heavy pollution. Though in Western countries, Green car is a huge success but for Indian market it is in the nascent stage. The purpose of this paper is to focus on investigating the awareness level and the perception of customers towards environment friendly practices of automobiles in India. Measuring the level of awareness of customers has been of great importance to the marketers as they need to bear the greatest responsibility to make the consumers understand the need for and benefits of eco friendly automobiles as compared to non green ones and motivate them to pay more to maintain a cleaner and greener environment.

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MadhumathiS, Ramesh Kumar J

ABSTRACT: A new double tail parallel latch load comparator are compared in term of voltage,power,delay and offset voltage.CMOS dynamic comparator which has dual input, dual output inverter stage suitable for high speed analog-to-digital converters with low voltage and low power. A single tail comparator is replaced with a double tail dynamic comparator which reduces the power and voltage by increasing the speed. The technology scaling of MOS transistors enables low voltage and low power operation which decreases the offset voltage and delay of the comparator .The proposed algorithm replaces some pair of transistors connected in parallel for offset voltage reduction in double tail comparator due to mismatch in transistor pairs. Low voltage and low power consumption are the two most important parameter of the comparator which is to be used in high speed ADCs. 0.25µm CMOS technology confirms the analysis result, frequency=41MHz and given supply voltage will be 0.8v.

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Gharu Anand Nandlal RastogiNitesh

Abstract: This project proposes different enhancement algorithms for blur images.It is useful to apply image enhancement methods to increase visual quality of the images as well as enhance interpretability and visibility. An Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) based blur image enhancement algorithm is presented for this purpose. EMD is a signal decomposition technique which is particularly suitable for the analysis of non-stationery and non-linear data. An Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) based blur image enhancement algorithm is presented for this purpose. EMD is a signal decomposition technique which is particularly suitable for the analysis of non-stationery and non-linear data.In EMD, initially each spectral component of an blur image is decomposed into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) using EMD. The lower order IMFs capture fast oscillation modes (high spatial frequencies in images) while higher order IMFs typically represent slow spatial oscillation modes (low spatial frequencies in images).Then the enhanced image is constructed by combining the IMFs of spectral channels with different weights in order to obtain an enhanced image with increased visual quality. The weight estimation process is carried out automatically using a genetic algorithm that computes the weights of IMFs so as to optimize the sum of the entropy and average gradient of the reconstructed image.

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Jayanthi. K, Kalpanadevi. K, Kiruthiga. G

ABSTRACT: In this paper, the proposed work is to extract maximum power from the PV powered water pumping system driven induction motor. The PV powered water pumping is commonly used for agriculture and households applications. To seek out the peak power from the PV array, the inverter is operated at variable frequency, to vary the output of the water pump. The proposed system utilizes the multilevel inverter to generate a sinusoidal waveform instead of quasi square wave inverter. The anticipated system has the benefits of less Total Harmonic Distortion in the output voltage, low switching losses, less in filter requirements, low heating of motor under rating condition, less in ripple torque production and so on. The fuzzy logic based peak power point tracking technique is employed. The extraction of peak power is achieved by varying the frequency of multilevel inverter in order to operate the induction motor at maximum torque condition. The additional features of the PV fed system is that, the motor current is limited to an upper limit of PV array current, so that motor winding and power semi conducting switches can be protected against excessive current flow. The system is tested using MATLAB/ simulink for change in insulation and change in temperature for the validation of the proposed work.

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Achuthan Gandhi G, G. Vijayalakshmi

ABSTRACT: In the wireless sensor networks there is the chance for the packets to be dropped due the attacker at the intermediate nodes. The packet droppers are being identified. The packets are routed from source node to the destination by AODV Routing protocol. Some of the intermediate nodes may act as the packet dropper. This is because the third party may change the characteristics of the nodes. The type of attack that we are going to consider here is the worm-hole attack. The droppers are identified by our system. The packets are then routed in the alternative path avoiding those packet droppers.

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Nidhi Gouttam

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we have imported some innovative advancement to the byte rotation encryption algorithm which is more secure and fast. The principal goal guiding the design of any encryption algorithm must be security against unauthorized attacks. Within the last decade, there has been a vast increase in the accumulation and communication of digital computer data in both the private and public sectors. Much of this information has a significant value, either directly or indirectly, which requires protection. The algorithms uniquely define the mathematical steps required to transform data into a cryptographic cipher and also to transform the cipher back to the original form. Performance and security level is the main characteristics that differentiate one encryption algorithm from another. We have simulate a new encryption algorithm (developed in 2012) “Byte – Rotation Encryption Algorithm (BREA)” with “Parallel Encryption Model” which enhances the security as well as speed of the encryption scheme. The BREA is applied on different blocks of plaintext and executes in parallel manner through multithreading concept of single processor system.

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Jaya Kaviya.V, Manjula Devi .K, Dr. Marimuthu. C. N

ABSTRACT: DC-DC converter is important in portable electronic devices which are supplied with power from batteries primarily. Such electronic devices often contain several sub-circuits, in which switched DC to DC converters offer a multiple voltage levels from a partially lowered battery voltage thereby saving space instead of using multiple batteries. An active filter based on-chip DC-DC voltage converter provides distributed multiple local power supplies across an integrated circuit while maintaining high current efficiency within a small area. The area occupied by the circuit is small because no inductor or capacitor is required than other voltage regulators. The circuit is appropriate for noise sensitive portions of an integrated circuit. Digital current mode control in a full bridge phase shifted DC-DC converter is introduced. So that, the digital current controller performs gain adjustments scheme to achieve fast dynamic response and a current sampling scheme to avoid switching noise and spike in DC-DC converter. The MATLAB tool is used for the simulation of the voltage regulators

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Zelalem Dendir Lecturer Madawalabu University, Bale-Robe, Ethiopia

ABSTRACT: Although still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly unable to provide a sufficient means of survival in rural areas. Further, the asset base of farmers is not diversified, so loss of farming productivity during severe drought results in the total loss of assets and hence results in food insecurity and dependency on food aid. Therefore, it was crucial to identify the causes and consequences of food insecurity; assess the different livelihood strategies and their role to household food security status; and examine the effect of livelihood diversification to household food security status in order to recommend possible alternative actions. To achieve these objectives, data was collected from primary and secondary sources to understand the determinants, events and processes involved in people’s livelihoods. Livelihood strategies and food security status of 120 farm households were examined. The qualitative data was analyzed in the form of narratives, content analysis, comparison and triangulation where as the quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, and chi-square to test the significance. The major findings of the study imply that rapid population growth, resource degradation and shrinkage of cultivated land, drought, land fragmentation, weak financial and institutional organizations have puts the farm households at risk of food insecurity. This necessitates the need for enormous efforts in interventions in areas that help households to diversify their livelihoods both within and outside the agricultural system even though the chi- square test indicates insignificant associations. However, based on this result the researcher did not jump to the conclusion that diversification has no effect on food security status of farm households, but this result may be due to the different types of livelihood diversification strategies, their nature, and level and I recommend further in-depth determinants studies/research for future policies/strategies and concerned stakeholders working towards achieving food security must coordinate and intensify their efforts to get feasible and tangible outcomes.

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Obiorah, S.M.O., Nnuka, E.E., Odo, J.U.and Nwakpa, S. O.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research effort is to determine the optimal factors for dephosphorization of a Nigerian Agbaja iron ore. The process parameters used in the study of optimization of dephosphorization includes pH, particle size, dwell time. Response Surface Methodology was used in fitting response surface of a second order regression equation Y=0+1A+2B+3C+12AB+13AC +23BC+11A2+22B2+33C2+e. The result indicated that optimum conditions occurred at: pH 1.5, particle size 0.3mm and dwell time 60 minutes.

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Obiorah, S. M. O., Odo, J. U., Nwakpa, S. O., Mkpume, C. C.

ABSTRACT: The moisture-dependent characteristics of a starch-based composite binder comprising of silica sand, starch and bond clay was investigated. This study shows that the mechanical properties - gas permeability, compressive strength, compatibility and shatter index were optimum at 12.5% moisture content of the starch based composite binder.

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Olotu Yahaya, Alimi L. O, Rodiya. A.A, Omotayo F.S

Abstract: Safe drinking water is a necessity for life. Providing quality drinking water is a critical service that generates revenues for water utilities to sustain their operations. Population growth put an additional strain on the limited resources. The annual volume of water lost is an important indicator of water distribution efficiency, both in individual years, and as a trend over a period of years. Application of deterministic simulation model on public water supply variables reveals the volume of non-revenue water (NRW) and its cost effects have further created a complex system for the availability, distribution and affordability of the utility. Gradual annual increase in public water supply (AWS) from 9.0 *106m3 to 14.4 * 106m3 had negative effect on annual water accessed(AWA) with R2 = 0.096; and highly significant with annual water loss (AWL) with R2 = 0.99. This development indicates that water loss mainly through leakages and bursts is a function of public water supply. Hence, estimated volume and cost annual revenue water (NRW) in Akure is 6 million m3 and 15.6 million USD respectively. Critical analysis shows that the lost annual revenue could be used to provide education and health services for a period of 6-month in the region.

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Ewona, I. O., Osang, J. E., Udo, S. O

Abstract: Rainfall data collected by the Nigerian Meteorological Agency, Oshodi over a thirty - year period and from twenty three weather measuring stations were used for the study. This covered the period between January 1997 and December 2007. Regression equations were generated for each of the ten parameters in each station. Regression constants a and b were therefore extracted from these equations. The regression parameters which are reported in the form of tables show that the constant a, which is a reflection of the trend of the parameter lies between 0.006 and 0.230 while b lies between 35.81 and 228.5. Monthly mean daily total rainfall shows marked latitudinal dependence as can be seen in the positive slopes of the graph of b against latitude in Figure 2. Hence, rainfall shows consistent increase during the thirty years of this study. Constant b which is an indication of the volume of rainfall shows strong latitudinal dependence. We observe that the parameter decreases with latitude at the rate of 18.87 per degree rise in latitude. The correlation between latitude and parameter b is 0.92. The lowest values of Monthly mean values of rainfall as shown by constant b are in katsina which is in the far North and the highest values were in Calabar located in the far South. Katsina stands out as the lowest rainfall station while Calabar has been identified as having the highest rainfall in Nigeria.

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Zaher Saif Al-Hashami

ABSTRACT: Many programmers have multiple ways for programming in programming languages. Can reach the same result for a particular function works in a short time compared with the same function in another program to ensure access the result in a longer time. Difference between good and excellent programmers is reaching to the last result in short time and short way algorithm. In C++ programs could measure execution of some programs with Nanoseconds and Milliseconds. In this article loop and condition statements in C++ programming could measure them execution in little Nanoseconds or in Milliseconds. Comparison and approach between some programs algorithms are the method used in this paper. Time Execution taking of some C++ programs is depending on the algorithm of the program and statement time take. Preprocessor has role in speedup some Nanoseconds of execution of some C++ programs as compile time (convert to source code). These preprocessor statements like #define and #include preprocessor directives. There are many circumstances control the speed of some programs execution. Architecture of programming progress as well as hardware has role in speed of execution. The algorithm used in some C++ programs and execution of some functions is the topic of this article.

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Ravindra Singh Rajput, Punit Kumar Sharma, Sachin Panwar, Lalit Kumar

ABSTRACT: Various technique can be used to control of a dc motor , such as using the phase locked-loop principles, digital input, or anolog inputs. If desired, the speed of the motor may also be monitored with LED or LED displays.The project digital DC motor speed controller illustrates the use of digital inputs to control the speed of a DC motor. To process the digital inputs, a D/A converter will be used, while a combination of a speed sensor (Hall Effect) and F/V converter will be used to sense and convert the speed frequency into an appropriate voltage.

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Kiran Singh Sisodiya, Bijendra Singh, Kiran Sisodiya

ABSTRACT: Lucas sequence is associated with Fibonacci sequence. Many identities have been already derived for Lucas Sequence in books and mathematical journals. This paper will present formulas in solving Lucas means as well as solving the sequence itself. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classifications: 11B50, 11B99

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Mervette.El Batouti

The batch adsorption of Ni(II) onto activated carbon prepared from an agriculture applies to analyze adsorption data and were found to be applicable to these adsorption process. The reaction was effect of initial concentrations, adsorption dose, contact time and pH dependent .The latter was found to control efficiency of nickel removal. The kinetics of adsorption and extent of adsorption at equilibrium are rice husk has been studied. Langmuir and Freundich adsorption isotherm models were dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, adsorbate and experimental system. In comparison with other metals, nickel removal is poor, and possible reasons are discussed. The results show that the amount of adsorption of Ni++ increases with initial metal ion concentration, contact time and solution pH but decreases with amount of adsorbent and temperatures. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-first order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters e.g. ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH° of the adsorption process was found to be endothermic. Finally it can be seen that activated carbon was found to be effective for removal of Ni++.

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Parul Kapoor, Ritika Sharma, Sunil Kumar

ABSTRACT: This paper present novel design of band pass filter using dielectric resonators for various applications in ku band spectrum. It is consist of three cylindrical Resonators with simple microstrip line. This band pass filter provide greater reliability in terms of more compact, less volume , higher temperature stability and easy to use with wideband bandwidth which is vital for satellite or high data transmission involving a lot of video and data communications . Also it can be easily modified for other required band of frequency with availability of various dimensions of dielectric resonators. This band pass filter provide very good bandwidth of 1.9GHz (Pass band from 14.3GHz to 16.2GHz) in ku band. Within the whole BPF pass-band, the return loss is found better than 11dB, and the insertion loss is less than 1.5dB.

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