Open Access Journal of Scientific, Technology & Engineering Research

International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research (ISSN 2347-4289)

IJTEEE Volume 2 - Issue 6, June 2014 Edition - ISSN 2347-4289

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Mr. J.Purushothaman, Ms.S.Suganthi AP/ECE, Mr.G.Parameswaran AP/ECE

Abstract: In this method we only use joint physical layer method it gives physical information(graphical analysis) only. Here we develop Cross layer method with the joint physical layer method. Cross-layer optimization shall contribute to an improvement of quality of services under various operational conditions. Such management is currently subject of various patent applications. The cross-layer control mechanism provides a feedback on concurrent quality information for the adaptive setting of control parameters. Cross layer optimization removes strict boundaries to allow communication between layers by permitting one layer to access the data of another layer to exchange information and enable interaction. For example, having knowledge of the current physical state will help a channel allocation scheme or automatic repeat request (ARQ) strategy at the MAC layer in optimizing tradeoffs and achieving throughput maximization. Our results show that the proposed learning algorithms can converge up to two orders of magnitude faster than a state-of-the-art learning algorithm for physical layer power-control and up to three orders of magnitude faster than conventional reinforcement learning algorithms.

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Okuntade Tope Femi

ABSTRACT: The nature of conflict in the construction industry is so complex that if not properly managed can reduce productivity or escalate to litigation, this is due to varieties of people involved in it execution. Hence, Nigeria is not an exemption due to diverse religion, ethnicity and tribes which makes conflict inevitable in the Nigerian construction industry. This paper however analyzed the effects and causes of these conflicts in the Nigerian construction industry with the aim of proffering a recommendation based on previous study. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify the causes and effects of conflict from the project managers and contractors. This study identified 10 most important causes of crisis among other important factors and five (5) most severe effects of conflict in the Nigerian construction industry. The ten most importance causes of conflicts were: (1) win-lose scenario (2) failing to share credit (3) questioning others motives (4) disgruntled client (5) diverse perspectives (6) Arrogance (7) assumption (8) competitive personality and feeling judged while the five (5) most severe effects of conflict are (1) damaged and psychological wellbeing (2) complaint and blaming (3) dissatisfactions and stress (4) insubordination (5) withdrawal and miscommunication. The study recommends that conflict should be expected, planned, faced, surface, resolved with adequate conflicts management strategies in other to minimize or prevent it from occurring.

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M. Chougule, M. Unhale, A. Walunj, S. Chavhan, S. Somase.

ABSTRACT: Welding is a reliable and effective metal fabrication process which is widely used in industries. High heating at a one location during welding and further rapid cooling generates residual stress and distortion in the weld and base metal. In last few decades various research efforts have been directed towards the control of welding process parameter aiming at reducing residual stress and distortion. Residual stress distribution and distortion in welded plate are strongly affected by many parameters like structural, material and welding parameters. Such welding failure can be minimized by controlling the weld heat input. The distribution of the temperature in weld joint of AISI202 grade high strength steel was investigated by Finite Element Method (FEM) using ANSYS software and experiment has been performed to verify the developed thermo-mechanical finite element model using Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process. Also residual stress distribution will investigate only by FEM because experimental process is costly. Our basic aim is to analyse distribution of temperature and residual stresses in welding plate to avoid future failure in material. The residual stress gradient near the fusion zone is higher than in any other location in surrounding area. Because of this stress gradient, cold crack at the fusion zone in high strength steel occur. The main objective of this simulation is the determination of temperatures and stresses during and after the process. Temperature distributions define the heat affected zone where material properties are affected. Simulation process shows that higher residual stress is distributed in weld bead and in Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) Stress calculation is necessary because high residual stresses may be causes fatigue, fractures and stress corrosion such undesirable failures in the regions near weld bead.

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K. Veeravel

ABSTRACT: The ability to move cloud services and their components between providers ensures an adequate and cost-efficient IT environment and avoids vendor lock-in. Research has already addressed movability and migration on a functional level.1,2 However, no one has yet examined cloud service portability with regard to management and operational tasks, which are a significant and increasing cost factor. One reason is the lack of an industry standard for defining composite applications and their management. Without an appropriate standardized format, ensuring compliance, trust, and security the biggest area of critique preventing the cloud’s wider adoption is difficult. Dealing with these challenges in industry and research has the potential to bring cloud computing to the next level. TOSCA will enable the interoperable description of application and infrastructure cloud services, the relationships between parts of the service, and the operational behavior of these services (e.g., deploy, patch, shutdown)--independent of the supplier creating the service, and any particular cloud provider or hosting technology. TOSCA will also make it possible for higher-level operational behavior to be associated with cloud infrastructure management.

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Authors Ashenafi Mitiku, Alemayehu Chala , Yibrah Beyene

ABSTRACT: Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.) is an important spice and vegetable crop in Ethiopia. In nature, potyvirus is transmitted non persistently by at least five aphid species. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective of identifying the effects of intercropping pepper on aphid population, yield and yield components of pepper. Field experiments were conducted in two localities; Mareko and Meskan of southern Ethiopia from April to October 2011. The experiments were conducted with RCBD design with four replication. Treatments were combination of pepper with maize, pepper with sweet potato, pepper with maize and sweet potato and sole pepper as a control. Aphids were collected by using yellow water traps two times a week. Data on yield and yield components were taken at harvest. Results of the experiment revealed that intercropping of pepper with maize significantly (p<0.001) reduced aphid populations. In addition, it significantly (p<0.01) increased marketable pod yield and reduced unmarketable yield. The largest numbers of aphids (ca. 25 aphids at each location were caught from control plots while only about 12 and 10 of pepper intercropped with maize and sweet potato in Mareko and Meskan, respectively. Intercropping pepper with maize increased the marketable and total yield of pepper by 39% and 33% at Mareko 33% and 23% at Meskan. Intercropping of pepper with sweet potato neither increases nor was decrease the yield of pepper and LER value one. On the other hand, intercropping of pepper with maize and sweet potato reduced the pepper yield by 13% and 14% as compared to the control at Mareko and Meskan, respectively. Therefore, intercropping of pepper with maize can serve as reduction of aphid vectors infestation and improves pepper yield.

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Mst. Salma Sultana, Md. Anisur Rahman, Tanjin Tahera Naher

ABSTRACT: This research paper is mainly addressing the morphological, physiological, genetically and her own ecological behavior and also biological geography of ancient jawless Fish. Actually ancient jawless fish are living fossils, Proper examples of vertebrate species. The bodies of this fish are covering with skin or covered with in some extinct cases that means in some extinct bony plate. Ancient Jawless fish are exothermic as well as all fish. They keep their body temperature from the surrounding water of their body. The metabolism of these types of fish is slow in cold water. They are able to produce number of egg only once, cause after doing so their cloaca remains open for allowing a fungal infestation to kill them. The jawless fish are represents two groups for living one of them are hagfish and the other is lampreys. These types of fish are the only one living representatives of the creatures of ancient that also gave rise to the fish and finally humans. However there are some differences between hagfish and lampreys one of them lampreys are generally vertebrates. On the other hand hagfish are not considered as vertebrates at all.

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Jia Hui Ong, Jason Teo

ABSTRACT: By hybridizing Evolutionary Programming (EP) with Interactive Evolutionary Algorithm (IEA), game rules and its playing environment will be automatically generated for an arcade-type game that can be played on the Android mobile platform. In this study, mutation rates of 0.7 and 0.9 are used to generate both the game rules and the game environment for the mobile game. Players are used as the evaluator instead of the conventional mathematical fitness functions and hence the motivation for using high mutation rate is that they are able to generate higherlevels of diversity during the optimization runs. This interactive mode of game-playing cum evaluation will enable the creation of games that can fit the user’s preferences as well as styles of game-playing. Experiments show a very positive result where very good evaluation scores were obtained from the users. This shows that with a high mutation rate, the hybridized EP with IEA approach can generate rules and environments that are well-accepted and liked by human players.

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A. Kadum, B. Dahmani

ABSTRACT: The aim of this work to calculate the counting efficiency of NaI(Tl) 2x2 well scintillation detector (Canberra Inc.) .The advantage of this type detector its high efficiency which used to determination the low level of radiation as natural occurring radioactive material NORM.The gamma attenuation coefficients of natural radioisotopes and its daughters were calculated to find the three components of counting efficiency as shown in (Table 1). The (Table 2) presents the values of the counting efficiencies and plotted the graph as the aim of this study.

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Sanu Kumar

Abstract: This paper gives a concise presentation viewing parts of information warehouse too the employments of information digging for putting away the data. This paper quickly presents the fundamental ideas included with information mining, its definition, usefulness, viewpoint and the significant contention. As, this time of human advancement is, no doubt called as the data age. Today, the world's most valuable asset is data. As in the internet there is inconceivable information which are holding up to be appropriately composed in a manner some "sense" could be intimated from it. Accordingly the world today require an instrument which "uncovers information" by deciphering given information. Information warehousing arrangements with gathering of previews of information taken from transaction preparing frameworks at given in terms. Data warehouses are databases utilized completely for reporting. The information warehouse gives the capacity of information in an organization that encourages its get to therefore improving the capability of business leaders to addition opportune access to corporate data.

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A.Vamshi Krishna Reddy, T.Sharath Kumar, D.K. Tharun Kumar, B. Dinesh, Y.V.S. Saisantosh

ABSTRACT: The rapid depletion of fossil fuels and rising of oil prices has led to the search for Secondary fuels. The Secondary fuels that we are using should have the same efficiency or greater efficiency of the engine that uses ordinary fuel. In this project the secondary fuel used is HHO gas. HHO otherwise known as hydroxyl or Browns Gas is the gas produced from splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen from electrolysis and allowing the gas to stay in a premixed state for use on-demand without the need for storage. This reduces the exhaust gas emitted during the working of engine, and the temperature of the engine is also reduced which is produced by the burning of ordinary fuels. The HHO gas is injected into the inlet manifold of the combustion chamber through the air filter of the engine. From this design the fuel utility is reduced from 10% to 30% which minimizes the carbon deposition in the cylinder thereby increasing the changing period of engine oil, it also improves the efficiency of the engine and the life span. Engine torque also increased and pollution gets reduced to maintaining the green house effect.

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S. Sindhuja S. Vidhya

Abstract: Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork is a wireless network formed by wireless nodes without any help of infrastructure. In this network, nodes are mobile and can communicate dynamically in an arbitrary manner. The network is characterized by the absence of central administration devices like base stations and access points. One of the fundamental challenges in Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork is to discover the route with good performance and less overhead. The overhead of a route discovery cannot be neglected. Limiting the number of rebroadcasts can optimize the broadcasting. Enabling efficient rebroadcast for reducing routing overhead in Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork is used to reduce the number of retransmissions and routing overhead. The probabilistic rebroadcast algorithm is used to calculate the Covered Neighbor set and UnCovered Neighbor set for broadcasting. Broadcasting based on probabilistic rebroadcast algorithm can effectively discover the route by using the additional coverage ratio and connectivity factor. Simulation results are demonstrated using NS-2 Simulator. From these results, the proposed system significantly decreases the number of retransmissions, routing overhead and increases the routing performance.

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T. Sujitha, S. Punitha Devi

Abstract: Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are a one form of wireless networks. It is used for communication between vehicles on roads. The conventional routing protocols are suitable for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). But it’s poorly in VANETs. As communication links break often happen in VANETs compare than in MANETs, the reliable routing is more difficult in the VANET. Research work has been done to the routing reliability of VANETs on highways. In this paper, we use the intelligent transportation system for VANETs. The intelligent transportation system helps to capture the future positions of the vehicles and determines the reliable routes preemptively. This paper is the first to propose an intelligent transportation system gives reliable routing process. A new mechanism is developed to find the vehicles information from the source vehicle to the destination vehicle. Through the simulation results, that the proposed scheme significantly give good result compare than other literature survey.

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Uzoegbu M.U.

Abstract: The Upper Benue rift comprising the Gongola and Yola Basins in Nigeria consist of the Aptian-Albian Bima Formation. The Yolde Formation (Cenomanian-Turonian), Gongila/Pindiga/Dukul Formation (Turonian-Coniacian) and Gombe Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian). The Dukul Formation is situated on latitudes 9°52'00" N to 9o45'00"N and longitudes 11050'00"E to 12o00'00"E. Shale from Turonian strata of the Dukul Formation has been characterized by stratigraphical and paleontological techniques. The aims of this study were to analyze the lithostratigraphy; determine the age and paleoenviroment of the formation; highlight its potential as a source rock and possibly briefly illustrate the petroleum systems within the region. The lithofacies of the unit is composed of shales with thin interbedded limestone that measures a few centimeters to a maximum of 1m, and siltstones. The section of the unit described at Dukul contains thicker beds of limestone when compared with the other sections from the area. There are two limestone sections; the basal limestone which measures about 2.2 m and an upper limestone bed intercalated between shales. The second limestone bed measures about 2.1 m. The limestones are grain supported and rich in bivalves and gastropods. The limestone have average thickness of about 0.5 m, they are grey and grain to mud supported. The shales have average thickness of 0.45 m. The siltstone beds occur near the top and at the base of the section. The limestones are rich in macrofossils as demonstrated by the frequency occurrence of bivalve shells and shell fragments. The presence of biomicritic limestone suggests deposition under low energy environments.

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Nasser Mohammednour Ibrahim Ahmed

ABSTRACT: This experiment was carried out in the workshop of the Department of Agric. Eng., Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum during the period (November 2012- April 2013). Ripen heads of sunflower were put in six paper sacks 300 g in each sack to be threshed with this thresher. The concave of the thresher was adjusted by using different number of teeth in each row. Three teeth for every row were used for the first treatment, and two teeth for the second treatment for threshing 300 g of the heads. The parameters measured were: time of operation, fuel consumption, percentage of straw, material capacity and cleaning efficiency. When three teeth were used for the concave rows the time of operation, fuel consumption, percentage of straw, material capacity and cleaning efficiency were 2.93 minutes, 148.33 ml, 0.74%, 6.143kg/h and 99.26% respectively. When two teeth were used for the concave rows the time of operation, fuel consumption, percentage of straw, material capacity and cleaning efficiency were 1.14 minutes, 46.67 ml, 5.86%, 15.789 kg/h and 95.9% respectively. From these results it can be concluded that this thresher is capable of threshing the heads of sunflower crop when adjusting the concave by using three teeth in each row, as it gives more cleaning efficiency and less amount of straw.

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Deepa. C. Kugor

Abstract: The simple and effective Histogram Equalization technique of Image Enhancement has its major disadvantage of hampering the mean brightness of image. So, it is always not affordable to use HE in consumer electronic products. In order to overcome this drawback a novel technique known as Minimum Mean Brightness Error Dynamic Histogram Equalization (MMBEHDE) was proposed to attain maximum brightness preservation.

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Md. Shahrior Alam

ABSTRACT: This paper will show the water quality assessment of Hatijheel Lake. Research work has been carried out to determine some vital water quality parameters those abate the water quality and find out the most vulnerable location of Hatirjheel Lake. The assessment in-cluded whether the water quality meets the criteria for drinking water quality set by ECR’97, and whether if varies from different points of the Hatirjheel Lake in the dry season. We get pH varied from 6.7 to 7.1 with a weighted average of 7.0 100% samples maintain the standard (ECR.97). Color varied from 25 to 50 pt-Co units with a weighted average 42.0 pt-Co units 100% samples showed deviation from standard. Turbidity varied from o to 13 NTU with a weighted average of 7.2 NTU 40% samples showed deviating from the standard. Carbon dioxide (CO2), varied from 35 to 60 mg/l and a weighted average 46 mg/l. Alkalinity varied from 90 to 345 mg/l as CaCO3 and a weighted average 162 mg/l as CaCO3. Hardness varied from 150 to 300 mg/l as CaCO3 and a weighted average 215 mg/l as CaCO3 40% of the samples have shown lower value then the ECR’97 standard. Chloride varied from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/l with a weighted average of 0.70 mg/l, 100% samples showed deviation from the standard. Carbon dioxide (CO2), varied from 28 to 60 mg/l with an average 45.7 mg/l, 100% samples showed deviation from the standard. BOD varied from 0.0 to 10 mg/l with a weighted average of 6.8 mg/l, 100% samples showed deviation from the standard. COD varied from 28 to 60 mg/l with a weighted average of 45.7 mg/l, 100% samples showed deviation from the standard. This paper will help the assessment of water of Hatirjheel Lake and necessity of prevention of lake contamination.

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Arka Saha, Dr. Samaresh Pan, Soumen Pan

ABSTRACT: In the present investigation a humble effort has been made to finding the possibilities of an Indian fly ash in the production high strength high performance concrete and to evaluate the contributions of some significant mix composition parameters and age upon the strength development characteristics of concrete. A siliceous fly ash having a glass content of 34% and a fineness of 70% passing a 45 micron sieve was used. Experimentation has been performed over water-cementitious material ratios (w/cm) ranging from 0.27 to 0.42, cementitious material contents (cm) varying from 430 to 550 kg/m3 and fly ash replacements ranging from 0 to 40% by weight of cementitious material. Compressive strengths of concrete have been evaluated at 7, 28 and 90 days age. Slump values of fresh concretes are in the range of 150-200 mm. Results of the present investigation indicate that compressive strength decreases as the w/cm and the fly ash replacement percentage increase at all the ages. 28 day strength of concrete has varied between 33 to 68 MPa while that of 90 day strength has ranged from 42 to 71 MPa. It is also revealed that a judicious use of fly ash has a tremendous potential in producing HSC. Based on statistical analysis of the database of the work, optimum fly ash replacements leading to strength similar to control (0% fly ash) have been determined as 10% and 17% for 28 and 90 days respectively. The results also suggest that HSC incorporating fly ash as a partial replacement of cement may be developed with a w/cm less than 0.34. Contribution of fly ash in improving strength of concrete increases with increasing replacement levels beyond 28 days. The average ratio of fly ash concrete strength between 7 and 28 days has been observed as 0.61 whereas gain in strengths from 28 to 90 days is about 20%.

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Hamed M. H., M. A. El-Desoky, A. M.Ghallab, M. A. Faragallah

Abstract. An incubation experiment was carried out in plastic pots to study the application effects of the investigated organic materials (Humic acid (HA), Vinase (V), Clover straw (CS), and Ethylene diamin tetra acetic acid (EDTA).) on P forms in calcareous soils. Each organic material was applied to 200g soil at two levels (2.5 and 5.0%) as organic matter. The experiment was carried out for incubation time periods (0, 30, 60, and 120 days). The results indicated that the addition of all investigated organic materials caused increases in most soil P forms (Resin-P, organic-Po, inorganic-Pi, and HCl-P) of the studied soils. These increases in P forms depended upon the type and level of the used organic material, the time of incubation and the soil type. Generally, in all studied soils, the investigated organic materials had the order of Vinasse > HA > CS > EDTA.

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David Seyi

Abstracts: This paper examined the concept of Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) in Nigeria under secondary school education system. The meanings of Vocational Education, Technical Education and Vocational and Technical Education were discussed. Objectives of Vocational and Technical Education in secondary school education as contained in the National Policy on Education 2004 edition were highlighted. The scope/structure of Vocational and Technical Education in secondary school education was outlined. A concise historical development of Vocational and Technical Education at secondary school level was traced. Out of the numerous challenges of Vocational and Technical Education in general and Accounting Education in particular, some were identified and solutions were provided for the identified challenges. Recommendations were advanced to improve on the programme of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria such as inclusion of practical oriented curriculum, government should increase funding of education at all levels.

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ABSTRACT: In Ethiopia, sugar industry is increasing at an alarming rate and is expected to play a significant role in poverty reduction. Thus, tissue culture has irreplaceable potential as it enables rapid and large scale production of disease free planting material and creates novel genetic variation for improvement of the varieties. The experiment was carried out on two elite sugarcane varieties using leaf explants to investigate the effect of genotype on callus initiation and subsequent in vitro plant regeneration. The two varieties showed a statistically different response to various hormones and hormonal combinations with regard to most of the parameters measured. For callus initiation, vars. B52-298 and NCO-334 performed best on 3 mg/l and 2 mg/l of 2, 4-D respectively. 2 mg/l BA and 1 mg/l BA are better concentration of hormones for better shoot performance for B52-298 and NCO-334 variety respectively and hence no need of hormonal combination. Roots perform better on 1/2MS medium supplemented with 4 mg/l NAA for NCO-334 and 1mg/l IBA for B52-298 variety. The finding of the study is very important as it serves as a baseline for undertaking comprehensive sugarcane tissue culture research and other activities.

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Rohit Kumar

ABSTRACT: The World internet communication that was initiated as a text collection is firstly adapting to complete cybernetic areas that facilitating servicing, interacting, and communicating. Below this less weight, the language net and net a pair of.0 movement is saw as interacting steps evolving to a new exampler, The 3Dimensional net. In this paper I have offered and outlined the conception 3Dimensional net and discussed why it is achieving price following, what it will show, and the way one will comprehend it. My goal during this paper is to retrieve an exploration technology and lift bases in network, protection and cloud computing areas. I have tended to explore the initial motivation for the 3Dimensional net and also the potentialities it brings. Afterwards, I have tend to invigilate the specified system and analyzing challenges that require to be addressed so as to create the 3Dimensional net a reality.

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M. I. Hoque, M. A. Sattar, M.R. Haque

ABSTRACT: An investigation was conducted to evaluate the water quality of some ground for irrigation, drinking and livestock consump-tion. Fifteen samples were collected from Babugonj upazila of Barisal district in Bangladesh. The chemical constituents of water samples were determined to find out their suitability for irrigation, drinking and Livestock consumption. As per pH all water samples were slightly acidic to slightly alkaline and were found suitable for irrigation, drinking and aquaculture, except 07 samples of ground water which were graded unsuitable for drinking. EC (Electrical conductivity) of all the samples were not problematic for irrigation and all samples were "Medium salinity" group (C2). TDS (Total dissolved solids) of all ground water samples were graded as "fresh" water in quality. Ca and Mg concentration were suitable for drinking. All samples were "excellent" in respect of B concentration. The P concentration in groundwater sources of Babugonj upazila might not be harmful for multipurpose use. No samples of groundwater water contained any arsenic. The Cu concentration was within safe limit for drinking. No detectible amounts of carbonate were present in the collected water samples. The Cl concentrations of all the samples were found to be suitable for drinking but unsuitable for Livestock consumption. SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) of all the samples were as low sodium water (SAR< 10) i.e. S1 category. Based on PAR (Potassium Adsorption Ratio) values the water samples would not be harmful for agricultural corps. Eight samples of groundwater were unsuitable for irrigation in respect of RSC (Residual Sodium Carbonate). In respect of SSP (Soluble Sodium Percentage) 02 samples were "Excellent" and the rest were "good" classes for irrigation. In case of Hardness 03 samples were "Hard" 11 as "Medium Hard" and 01 "Soft" class for irrigation and 03 samples were unsuitable for livestock consumption. Except Cl all the chemical constituents were within the suitable range for livestock consumption.

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Mahama Abass, Paul Kwami Adraki

ABSTRACT: Purpose – The primary objective of this study is to investigate the mechanisms and framework of barter practice in northern region of Ghana. Specifically, it examines the Perception that “barter practice is a primitive form of trade exchanges and that cannot be practice in this modern era where money has become the medium of exchange in all exchange practices”. Methodology/Approach – Data were collected through a focus group discussions held with respondents from three different communities where barter exchanges appear to be still prominent. A total of 90 respondents made up the discussions; specifically 30 respondents were contacted in each of the three communities according to those into barter practices. Findings – The findings revealed the following; First, barter practice is still very prominent particularly in fishing communities where they have little access to food crops (that is they do not farm food crops) and do not have markets to trade with. Second, wide varieties of goods/commodities are bartered in the communities these include; fish, cereals of all kind, legumes of all kind, cotton, firewood, animals, root and tuber crops. Third, exchange partners are faced with a lot of challenges, notable challenges include; difference in the value and quantities of commodities exchanged which most often leads to cheating and arguments, since most barter exchanges are not prearranged, it becomes difficult at times to get an exchange partner, because some of the commodities cannot be preserved for long periods they are sometimes exchanged cheaply (most especially if you cannot find an exchange partner). Fourth, distance is often not considered a critical factor in the exchange process within the community itself because the people are closer to each other so they easily barter. Distance becomes a factor especially when one has to travel to other communities to exchange, this is so because most exchanges are not pre arranged, an exchange partner may go and would not find an exchange partner. Fifth, since most residents are into barter exchanges, there is limited use of cash in the community, thereby enabling people as well as parents to reserve money in order to take care of their children school fees and health care bills Sixth, barter practice provides a platform for regular interactions among residents and residents from other communities since people exchange what they do not have and want. Seventh, exchange partners are always available during the rainy season but become very difficult to get an exchange partner during the dry season since there is nothing to exchange. Practical implications – The findings in this paper confirmed the importance of barter practice as a way of sustaining people’s income since there is limited use of cash. Finally, barter practice is practiced seasonally and is very vibrant during the rainy season and less active during the dry season since there is often nothing to be exchanged in the dry season.

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Adewole A.P, Fakorede O.J, Akwuegbo S.O.N

ABSTRACT: The inconvenience associated with spams and the cost of having an important mail misclassified as spam have made all efforts at improving spam filtering worthwhile. The Naive Bayes algorithm has been found to be successful in properly classifying mails. However, they are not perfect. Recent researches have introduced the idea of smoothing into the Naive Bayes algorithm and they have been found to produce better classification. This study applies the concept of linear interpolation smoothing to Naive Bayes spam classification. The resulting classifier did well at improving spam classification and also reducing false positives.

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K. SaiKumar

Abstract: In modern days, we use computers and resources very frequently without considering their harmful effects to our environment. Green computing is a technique by which, we use computers and its resources without harming our ecosystem. Green computing is the way to use computer related work doing with enviornmental. This is new Data Center Design Pattern that includes the architecture of processor and other computer devices. The most important objective in green computing is to design a processor with low consuming power energy, followed by designing of Data Centre of many servers that consumes less energy to prevent harmful effect of our environment. In this paper, we will discuss what green computing is and the concept and design of a proposed Data Center.

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Jennifer Deborah, Saveetha

ABSTRACT: This app aims at creating a mobile application for the safety of women. A software application is developed to meet the basic necessities of the mobile application. This mobile application is named as "I AM UNSAFE". The software used to develop this mobile application is Windows Phone App 8 Software Development Kit (SDK), Blend Visual Studios 2012, Visual Express Studio 2012, and Microsoft Paint. This coding can be done in C#.

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