IJTEEE

Open Access Journal of Scientific, Technology & Engineering Research


International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research (ISSN 2347-4289)
QUICK LINKS
CURRENT PUBLICATIONS



IJTEEE Volume 3 - Issue 7, July 2015 Edition - ISSN 2347-4289

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

IJTEEE Terms and Conditions


Jaswender Malik, Kavita

Abstract: Big Data is dealt by every organization which serves large number of users. Efficiently fetching, transferring, storing, cleaning, sanitizing, querying and extracting information from Big Data is a daunting task because a single machine and the traditional algorithms can’t handle this staggering amount of data tractably. Now not all data comes in the form that can be directly processed by automated programs. Before feeding the data into huge data processing systems[1]. It is necessary to treat raw data to convert it into a consistent format. This is done using data cleaning, sanitization and transformation operations. In this paper we present a neat framework for data cleaning and transformation operation which can be integrated in existing Map Reduce (Hadoop) infrastructures. This framework can be standardized and be adopted by corporations for their Big Data processing tasks.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

1-3  



K. Ramesh

Abstract: The decreasing availability of fossil fuels pushes the nations have led to the development of alternative sources of energy which are renewable and environmental friendly. (E.g) Fossil fuels (coal,oil and gasU235,U233 ,hydropower etc. These are also known as raw energy resources.Fuel is a substance which burns continuously when raised to its ignition temperature in the presence of oxygen or air. The alternate energy sources which are available for Automotive are Bio Diesel, Solar energy, electric energy and Hydrogen energy. Among the various energy sources Bio-Diesel is recognized as the most feasible and affordable source of energy for future. When Bio-Diesel is a fuel to be considered, the availability of fuel, CO, HC emissions, engine adaptability to fuel, lubrication property, performance of Engine are likely good, and engine noise is less. But when emissions are analyzed, there is a sharp increase in the NOx emission. The valuable reason for increase in NOx formation is due to the higher oxygen content of the Bio-Diesel. This increase in NOx emissions also acts as a major hindrance in commercializing the use of Bio-Diesel, and also NOx causes adverse effect on human beings and Ozone. This research paper is aimed to make a way for commercial use of bio diesel on light duty diesel vehicles by reducing the NOx emission with minimum sacrifice on performance. NOx emissions in a Bio diesel fuel engine can be reduced by enriching Nitrogen in the engine intake air, since Nitrogen gas reduces the O2 available for combustion, reducing the flame temperature. This research paper deals with determining the NOx emission in an engine by using conventional Diesel as fuel.This paper also determining the NOx emission in an engine by using JOME (Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester) [B 100] as fuel,and determining the NOx emission with Nitrogen enrichment using B 100 as fuel. These experimental results can be used to establish that NOx can be reduced in Bio diesel powered IC engine by enriching air with Nitrogen.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

4-9  



Prabhdip Kaur

ABSTRACT: The purpose of image fusion is to merge relevant information from multiple images right into a single image. In this paper, by conducting the review it has been discovered that the majority of the existing techniques are based upon transform domain therefore it could results in some artifacts which might decrease the execution of the transform based vision fusion techniques. Moreover it is already been discovered that the issue of the uneven illuminate has already been neglected in the absolute most of existing focus on fusion. Therefore to overcome these issues, a fresh method which integrates the larger valued Alternating Current (AC) coefficients calculated in iterative block level principal component averaging (IBLPCA) domain base fusion with illuminate normalization and fuzzy enhancement has been proposed in this paper. The experimental results show the efficiency of proposed algorithm over existing work.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

10-16  



Ebrahim Nohani, Hamid keykhah, Behrooz Dahanzadeh, Rooholah Manssori Yekta, Mohsen Mehdi-zadeh, Taleb Javanmard

ABSTRACT :One of the most important and strategic policies in efficient development is using water sources. In this method, MATLAB is used for modeling the existing transfer condition based on limiting factors. The results show that shortening the path from 650 km to 220 km is the best choice from economic-technical aspects and in more than 50% of path length, there is no need for power higher than 12.3kw to transfer discharge 300 /sm3due to suitability of topography conditions, but in the continuance of path, the proposed pump cannot transfer this amount of water based on topography conditions, and we can use the engine of pumps with 18.8kwpower. Under such conditions, it is required to perform additional studies regarding proposed path to the dam reservoir.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

17-19  



Jia Hui Ong, Jason Teo

ABSTRACT : Designing a 3D object is a very laborious process that usually involves expertise and time using various 3D design software. Numerous researchers have proposed mathematical formulas to automatically design in 2D space and has led to recent efforts being done on studies which use mathematical formulas to create objects in 3D space. Johan Gielis’s Superformula that was generalized from the Supereclipse formula was able to generate 3D shapes by extending the spherical product of the Superformula. In this research, the Superformula is use to automatically generate 3D object shapes through Evolutionary Programming that are free-form evolution and non target-based evolution as in most existing studies on automatic evolution of 3D shapes. A novel fitness function was designed to evaluate the shapes generated by Superformula that serve as a part of the parent selection process in Evolutionary Programming. Through five experiments, the final objects generated from each run were selected to be printed out using 3D printing. Three out of five objects were successfully printed out from this automatic 3D object generationprocess. However, two objects were printed with deformation due to the thin layer of the object. From the observation gainedin the first five runs, the fitness function was then fine-tuned in order to evolve a more printable 3D object. From the fine-tuning another five runs were tested and the results show all five final objects from the evolution process were successfully printed out using a 3D printer with significantly less deformation due to thin layers.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

20-25  



R.Sriranjani, S.Jayalalitha

ABSTRACT: Efficient and effective control of electrical equipments needs digital signal processing unit. The power electronics devices control the motor and electrical equipments and the devices are switched by controllers. The reference signals are generated for the controller for effective switching of Power devices. Various signals are generated in MATLAB Simulink platform which is required for control applications and for real time implementation Xilinx system generator is used.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

26-28  



Abhishek Pal, Sachin Kumar

Abstract: the underground coal mine environment is harsh. It is difficult to work in such conditions and the environment also effect the miners’ health. Researchers found long term effects on underground coal miners’ health. Mines are more prone to accidents and natural disasters; for example Roof fall occurrence is a major problem in Coal Mines. It causes revenue loss and casualty in underground coal mines; sometimes miners who are alive get trapped by roof fall occurrence and lost their lives due to lack off or delay in rescuing operation. Researches are being carried out to provide technological advancement for the safety and health improvement precautions of underground miners. We have designed a prototype of such device cum system which can continuously monitor the heart rate pulse of an underground coal miner. We get to know through this device during the accidents that how many miners are alive under the mine. Our aim is to design a low-cost, wearable wireless device which can continuously monitor the human heart rate pulse and send the information to the receiver/base station, either directly from sensor node or through intermediate nodes. Sensor node is integrated with a pulse sensor while intermediate node is just a kind of repeater. We present the major requirements to develop a small device that can operate on a tiny event-driven operating system, and also it provides support for efficient modularity and concurrency-intensive operation.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

29-32  



Jaskirat Kaur, Harmandar Kaur

ABSTRACT: This The Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technique has potential to significantly reduce Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and enhance system capacity for future wireless communication systems. The MIMO-OFDM technology improves the throughput, reliability and predictability of wireless Local Area Networks (LAN). This paper introduces the basic concepts of several MIMO detection (linear and non linear) techniques. The comparative analysis of these techniques is done using MATLAB depending upon their performance for different modulation techniques and for different antenna configurations of MIMO system.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

33-36  



Renuka, Vinit Grewal

ABSTRACT: This research paper is based on simulation and analysis of QOS parameters for hard and soft handoffs. Performance of UMTS scenario is evaluated for various multimedia applications like FTP and HTTP. To accomplish the task of simulation OPNETTM 14.5 modulator used. From results, soft handoff is better than hard handoff because soft handoff support connections during mobility and handoff.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

37-42  



Ugwu K.C, Oluka S.I

ABSTRACT: An ergonomic study on groundnut production was carried out with five farmers used as subjects. Two harvesting techniques were investigated. Harvesting method I involved involved plucking of the pods from the plant on the field while harvesting method II involved uprooting the whole plant (including pods) after which the pods were plucked from the plants in a sitting posture. Mechanical shelling was performed and compared with manual shelling. The parameters measured on the subjects included heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements at each working postures. The area of groundnut plots harvested together with the weight of groundnut shelled as well as the time spent in each case were all measured. The field capacities, energy expenditure rate, shelling capacity, spinal extensor muscle force as well as the total reaction on the lumbosacral joint were determined for both harvesting methods. Results obtained indicates that, for harvesting methods I and II, energy expenditure rates for harvesting are 5.3kJ/min and 3.7kJ/min, energy expenditure rates for shelling are 4.5kJ/min and 5.3kJ/min, field capacities are 36m2/h and 44m2/h, shelling capacities are 65kg/h and 12kg/h, spinal extensor muscle forces for harvesting are 2.9kN and 2.6kN while that of shelling are 0.5kN and 1.5kN, total reaction on lumbosacral joint during harvesting are 3.1kN and 2.7kN while that of shelling are 0.9kN and 2.0kN. Generally, harvesting method I produced higher values in field capacity, increase in energy expenditure rates, spinal extensor muscle forces and total reaction on lumbosacral joint than harvesting method II, while mechanical shelling produced higher values in shelling capacity and increase in energy expenditure rate, but lower values in spinal extensor muscle force and total reaction than manual shelling. These lower values obtained for the parameters associated with harvesting method II and mechanical shelling mean lower physiological stress which is good for the subject. It is therefore recommended that harvesting method II (uprooting the groundnut plants first and later pluck the nut in a sitting position) and shelling mechanically is a suitable combination of operations that can be adopted in groundnut production whenever a mechanical harvester is not available.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

43-47  



Sana Châabane, Wassim Jaziri

ABSTRACT: Building domain ontologies is gradually changing; however building geographic ontologies has not been well explored given the specificity of the spatial characteristic of its concepts and relationships. To this purpose, we propose an approach of building geographic ontologies which defines a process of building founded on two phases: a meta-modeling preceding a modeling phase. The proposed process adds a step of spatialization to the steps of building domain ontologies [6]. The new step of spatialization is to provide concepts and relationships of a geographic ontology by spatial characteristics. We apply the defined process on the road domain to finally obtain a road ontology named "OntoRoad".

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

48-52  



Wei Shun Chee, Jason Teo

ABSTRACT: A significant challenge in evolutionary robotics is that the evolved solutions face significant and often insurmountable difficulties when attempting to cross the simulation- reality transference gap. As a result, most of the evolved solutions remain as conceptual designs that are constrained to perform only within the simulation environment. Moreover, the deployment of a fully autonomous robot is an extremely complex, costly, and time-intensive endeavor. In our previous investigations, we have successfully employed a multi-objective co-evolutionary approach to automatically design and optimize a fully autonomous snake-like modular robot to acquire different moving behaviours for effective locomotion. Following the promising research from our previous work, this line of investigation is extended in this study to specifically combine the evolutionary robotics approach with 3D printing in the form of fused deposition modeling to explore the transferability of the evolved solutions from simulation environment to real world deployment. The main goal of this study is to provide a rapid and cost-effective automated design, fabrication and deployment methodology for autonomous snake-like modular robot in order for real world applications. A total of three different moving behaviours were explored for the acquisition and real-world testing by the constructed snake-like modular robot for effective locomotion, which are the lateral undulation, vertical undulation and lateral rolling moving behaviours. Moreover, a unique slot-in method is introduced in this work in designing and fabricating the snake-like modular robot’s hardware parts to ease the robot assembling process. The results from this study show that the transference from simulated to real-world robots is indeed feasible and readily achievable where a transference accuracy of 87.05% was been achieved.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

53-62  



Sreenivasulu Reddy, Poornachandra Sekhar, Hitheshwar Naik

ABSTRACT: Design features refer as manufacturing information sets of shape related attributes of a work part. Features recognition is the most relevant methods of image analysis. In this paper, an ideal method is developed to extract and recognize different shape features using digital image processing techniques. The geometric data extraction algorithm is developed with SOBEL, CANNY Edge detection algorithms for features extraction and MINBOUNDSUITE algorithm for features recognition. The methods involved are colored (RGB) image to black and white image (Binary) conversion, boundary and edge detection, area based filtering, use of bounding box and its properties for calculating object metrics. The algorithm was developed in MATLab package.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

63-68  



Jasmeet Kaur, Nitika Soni

ABSTRACT : The quick growth in network multimedia equipment has given room to real-time digital services. WSNs have become a vital area of research for computational theory owing to their huge range of applications. Owing to limited power of the battery consumption of energy has become an issue in sensor network protocols. Many routing protocols have been presented to enhance the energy efficiency a bit more but still more improvement can be done. To outperform the limitations of the earlier schemes an improved scheme is proposed. The proposed scheme is capable to outperform the drawbacks of the GSTEB routing protocol using the reactivity and artificial bee colony optimization based optimized path selection.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

69-72  



Rupali, Harmandar Kaur

ABSTRACT: In this paper, the performance of Zigbee and WiMAX are presented through measurements of three different Quality Of Service parameters such as Throughput, Delay and Packet Delivery ratio with respect to AODV protocol using NS2. The Zigbee technology based on standard 802.15.4 which is designed to meet the needs for simple, low power and low cost WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network). In parallel, the WiMAX technology based on standard 802.16 which offers higher capacity and wider coverage area than cellular network. The results shows the comparative analysis for Wireless Sensor Network based technologies Zigbee and WiMAX on three different number of nodes scenario ie 100 (10*10), 49 (7*7), 169 (13*13).

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

73-78  



Khaled Ahmed Ali Yehia

ABSTRACT: Process industry involves large plants; mainly operating in continuous form, to achieve economic mass production output. However in some situations process vessels and tanks are used, where batch processes, take place. These tanks often contain reactants and products in the liquid state. After treatment or processing, valves are opened to allow the product to drain and vessels may receive the next batch. However, with conventional valves there will always be an amount of fluid trapped between the valve closing element and the tank or vessel, especially for those which are jacketed to allow heating or cooling. This amount is usually untreated, that is to say has not undergone the changes or processing taking place on the fluid bulk in the vessel. Moreover, no matter how accurately this amount is estimated to be isolated from the processed amount leaving the vessel, it will still contaminate with the processed product. From hygiene point of view, this may not be accepted. In this work a valve design is introduced; where no fluid is trapped between a process tank and the valve closing element. When the valve is opened the fluid flows to the outlet flow line without any contamination with unprocessed fluid. Thus a contamination free valve design is utilised to achieve hygiene design tanks or vessels used in batch based processes. Thus cheap equipment acquiring the hygiene requirements necessary for food and some other products that only can be achieved using expensive mass production lines is obtained.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

79-83  



Maha Radwan AL-Smadi

ABSTRACT: The social media and other social networking sites turn out to be a major part of our civilization, Electronic patient education and communications, such as email, and social media, are on the rise in healthcare today, With scientific progress and the spread of inventions And the emergence of new things that were not in earlier times Social networking sites have proliferated in the present era Where he became the most people or everyone they have a social account on the social networking site, We cannot deny the benefits and positives these sites But we cannot also deny what brought him from cons cannot be counted, Here we will talk about the pros and the cons in detail. My studies this is only to draw attention to the multiple risks arising from the misuse of social networking sites in var-ious programs and fields, I saw the need for studies to find out public opinion about the pros and cons of these sites and impact in the community, we discuss the articles in this special section and conclude with considerations for future research. Also touched on the possibility of proposing some solutions to reduce the negatives caused by such programs.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

84-86  



Ravneet Kaur, Dr. Jyoteesh Malhotra.

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a literature survey on security issues in Vehicle Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). Many researchers have done work on Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) where VANETs routing protocol has been taken as a new protocol. In VANET cars are allowed to talk to each other where a wireless device sends information to nearby vehicles. In this research we will discuss the security issues such as confidentiality, authenticity, availability and non-repudiation aimed to secure communication between V2V and V2I. Tabulated statistics on the relationship between security services versus the technique to encounter the possible attacks is shown. Five security services with security attacks and techniques have been presented. The new technique for VANETs can be build taking this paper as reference.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

87-90  



Dr Bhupendra singh hada, Swati Gairola

Abstract: Shopping, Banking, communicating with friends and family are all simpler and effective because of advances in the Internet. Internet has also blessed us with Social networking sites. Social networking sites allow users with the opportunity to fuse with a huge network of familiar as well as new & unknown friends. It has now become like a habit for the young adults to create Profiles online and indeed they are addicted to mobiles, Tablets, laptops and PCs. Social networking sites is now an important tool for recruiters to hire the best talent out of all applicants pool. Mobile phone applications have made it simpler for the youth to get logged in into Facebook, LinkedIn or Twitter and post updates about their likings, activities. However we all know that everything has its pros and cons so in the same way social networking is also facing some issues like privacy issues, fake profiles etc. This paper focus on how and in what ways social recruiting sites is used by recruiters to find potential candidates and knowing its usefulness.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

91-95  



Annu Ghotra, Nitika Soni

ABSTRACT: Improving network lifetime is the significant challenge of wireless sensor networks. The possible way is to make use of mobile sinks. Sink mobility with a constrained path may improve the energy efficiency in wireless sensor network. Due to the path constrained problem , the communicating speed of mobile sink decreases . So it becomes difficult to improve the routing of data packets and to conserve energy. In this paper, Inter cluster ant colony optimization (ACO) data aggregation is used along with rendezvous points (RP) and mobile sink (MS). This proposed scheme will increase the network throughput and average remaining energy in highly deployed network .

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

96-99  



Dr. Praveen Kumar

ABSTRACT: Fuzzy numbers are ideally suited to represent uncertainty. In the present paper I have generalized & modified deterministic approach to accept LR - type fuzzy processing time, the sequence performance measurements of make span and job mean flow time are fuzzy in nature. Earlier McMahon & Lee [17]”proposed an algorithm for managing uncertain scheduling. However they have used trapezoidal fuzzy number to represent the processing time. After that“T.P. Hong & T.N. Chuang [13]”proposed a triangular fuzzy Johnson algorithm for n x 2 job shop scheduling problem they have used half inverse operator to compare fuzzy number as well as to find triangular longer time procedure. In the present work I have applied GRV (Generalized Ranking Value) technique for the generalized LR - type fuzzy number.“McCahon & Lee [17]”,“TP Hong & TN Chuang[13]”algorithm can be special case for our proposed algorithm.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

100-105  



Adarsh S S, Kavitha K V

ABSTRACT: Passengers in aircraft must need high security. The incidents like aircraft hijacking or crash happens. To avoid these events, some security measures can be taken. Such type of three security measures are studied and compared here and among them, an efficient aircraft security method is identified. In first method, which is one of the old security measures, the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system is used to ensure security. Here the aircraft network is constantly monitored and checked for hacking is done. It is done through Network Activity Monitoring Tool, which is an Intrusion Detection System. So this method can prevent the attacks from hackers and virtual hijacking. In the second method, the implementation of a Smart Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is used. The video system is installed at the cockpit of the aircraft. In the video system, face recognition system is established. If anyone other than pilot entered in to the room, the system send emergency signals to the ground station. The SVSS architecture is also much simple than the previous method. The final method is the latest and one of the best aircraft security monitoring system. This system is invented and used in China. The security of aircraft and key agreement scheme is joined together to attain more security. The key agreement scheme authenticates the aircraft and airport software, so that to ensure either side is secure. The aircraft side makes high security by applying biometric systems so that only the pilots can fly the aircraft. Also there is secret video surveillance of passengers to ensure no passenger is a hijacker. This reviewwill provide a basic idea about aircraft security and it will be helpful for the future researches.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

106-108  



Shima V M, Dr. Jayasudha J S

ABSTRACT:Cloud computing is a dominant technology in IT industry for providing different services to users of cloud. One important service is infrastructure as a service. The virtualization is the technique used in infrastructure as a service in which it allocates the virtual machine to user through Internet. Virtual machine which is a guest machine that runs in the host machine environment. Virtual Machine Infrastructure is used to buy Virtual Machine instances to run virtual machines in the cloud platforms. The high overhead of maintaining a virtual machine has been achieved by hardware support such as Intel virtualization technology (VT) by improving the implementation of hypervisor such as KVM, etc. Storage of virtual machine remains a challenging problem because of the high demand of Virtual machine images. A Storage Area Network cannot satisfy the increasing demand of large scale virtual machine hosting for cloud computing because of its cost limitation. The provisioning and depository of a number of Virtual Machine Infrastructure is a challenging problem. The data deduplication is a method used in Virtual Machine Infrastructure and there are various data deduplication techniques which make Virtual Machine Infrastructure storage and provisioning simple and efficient. In this paper, different methods and processes are discussed which is used in deduplication of data to overcome the problems faced in virtual machine images.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

109-112  



Ricardo F. Capistrano, BSChem., MSc., MMEng.

ABSTRACT :This research revealed that exposure of methane and/or steam to radiowave (RW) and microwave (MW) energy using copper and rhodium catalysts produced hydrogen gas in high quantity. The feasible pathways of chemical reactions leading to its production are shown below ; CH4 + 2H2O + MW or RW + catalyst → CO2 + 4H2 4H2O + MW or RW + catalyst → 2O2 + 4H2 The generation of hydrogen gas was true for both sources of energy whether separately or in combination. The amount of hydrogen produced using RW energy was however, greater by more than 53 % as compared to the output of hydrogen using MW energy. MW at 1, 145 W power using 18.3 g rhodium catalyst yielded an average of 15,000 ppm hydrogen. Using RW energy, the same quantity of rhodium catalyst net a very high yield of 542,151 ppm hydrogen. Using 153.3 g copper catalyst, RW produced an average amount of 30,820 ppm hydrogen gas. For RW the optimum conditions for the above reactions to move forward and yield the highest amount of hydrogen gas, were the following; methane average gas flow rates of 1.0 ml/s, average steam flow rates of 5 g/s, radiowave coil glow time of 1 minute and /or greater. For MW, time range of 4 to 5 minutes at a power of 500 to 600 W was observed optimum. RW generator at 475 kHz and a coil glow time of 1 minute and higher gave peak of hydrogen gas generation. In general, methane as well as, steam or in right combinations studied on both, when subjected to MW and/or RW energy in the presence of catalyst(s) produced continuous generation of hydrogen gas.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

113-116  



Mariam Kharaishvili, Platon Machavariani, Nino Chincharadze

Abstract: Objective: The goal of our survey is early detection of symptoms of infectious processes related to the etiology of maternal childbirth and postpartum periods to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality. Background: We present three patients with severe clinical cases; puerperal acute endometrit was caused by different etiologic factors. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Women hospitalized for postpartum acute Endometritis during 01.01.2010 -01. 01.2012. Clinical investigation revealed early, delayed, and late clinical pathogenic stages of acute endometritis in the postpartum period. Conclusion: postpartum endometritis, caused by various etiological factors are characterized with different clinical symptoms, and in most cases primary symptoms are minimal, which is the cause of inadequate antimicrobial therapies and is the cause of inadequate assessment of the infection focus

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

117-120  



Andi Dian Permana, Rifka Nurul Utami, Awalyah Ramadhani, Musfira Dewy, Bobby Sugara

ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia extract has widely investigated as a potent source of antioxidants. Its antioxidant activity is majorly due to its high level of phenolic compounds. Microencapsulation is one of the stabilization methods existing to overcome the instability of polyphenol in order to maintain its stability prior to administration. The objective of this research is to encapsulate the caesalpinia extract using emulsion solvent removal method using ethyl cellulose as encapsulating agent and evaluate the physical characteristic and dissolution rate of encapsulated material. The heart wood of caesalpinia plant was extracted using three different solvent: 70% ethanol, 96% ethanol and destilled water. The three extracts obtained from maceration then measured its antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds (TPC). The 70% ethanol extract shows the greatest TPC (48.36 %w/w) and IC50 in DPPH (3.572 ppm), thus, this extract was selected to be encapsulated. Microcapsules were prepared with three different drug-polymer ratio used in the formulas, 1 : 3, 1 : 4 and 1 : 5. These formulas were evaluated for drug encapsulation efficiency, microcapsule wall thickness and morphology, and also in vitro drug dissolution rate. According to the results obtained in this study, the microcapsule with the greatest physical characteristic and dissolution rate that is suitable for sustained release administration is formula III. From this study, it is suggested that caesalpinia extract is able to be formulated into microcapsules using emulsion solvent evaporation method and futher developed into sustained release oral preparation as a source of antioxidants.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

121-125  



Ansila Henderson, Soja Salim

ABSTRACT: The exponential development of Web service results in high quality service-oriented systems an urgent and fundamental research problem. The Web services were developed by different organizations and put forward various functionalities and Quality of Service (QoS) values. The selection of a Web service, for each activity of the work flow, meeting the user’s requirement is an important contest. The Quality of Service Management Framework Based on User Expectations assembles the expectations as well as ratings from the users of a service. It analyse the quality of the service only at the time a demand for the service is made and only using the ratings that have similar expectations. The collaborative filtering approach calculates QoS values of Web services. It makes Web service proposal by taking benefits of former usage events of service users. The Transactional and QoS- Aware selection algorithm deals with the concern of choosing and organizing Web services not only according to their functional requirements but also to their operational properties and QoS characteristics. The Web service QoS prediction framework, offers time-aware personalized QoS value prediction service for different service users. The online performance prediction framework predicts performance efficiently at run time.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

126-129  





Impact Factor : 1.556
Provided by IIFS

International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research

Manuscript submission

IJTEEE Open Access Journal

QR CODE
IJTEEE-QR Code