IJTEEE
International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research (ISSN 2347-4289)
PREVIOUS PUBLICATIONS



IJTEEE >> Volume 3 - Issue 10, October 2015 Edition



International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research  
International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research

Website: http://www.ijteee.org

ISSN 2347-4289



Evaluation Of Background Radiation Level At Shanu Village In Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Abdulmalik Muhammed, Danladi Eli, Idodo Maxwell

 

KEYWORDS

Radiation, radioactivity, dose rate, count rate, dosimeter, global Positioning System

 

ABSTRACT

An evaluation of the level of background radiation was carried out at Shanu village in Minna, Niger state, Nigeria. A portable Geiger-Mueller tube-based environmental digital radiometer (Digilert Nuclear Radiation Monitor, S.E International, Inc. USA) calibrated by gamma (γ) rays from cesium (Cs) source was used for the measurement. A total of ten (10) points was surveyed across the village for level of background radiation. The radiation dose rate varies from 0.0268mR/hr to 0.0311mR/hr. In all ten points surveyed the mean dose rate was 0.0128mR/hr with a standard deviation of 0.000879mR/hr. This is about 17% deviation from the standard background radiation value of 0.011mR/hr. This result could simply be attributed to natural sources (cosmic and terrestrial) and also the possibility of radionuclide sources in the environment. The average annual effective dose obtained from this study is 1.1213mSv/y which is still less than the current average radiation dose to the world’s population from natural sources of radiation of 2.4mSv/y as reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR).

 

REFERENCES

[1] Ahmed J. U, (1991). Topical Report: High levels of natural radiation; Report of an international conference in Ramsar, 36-38.

[2] Ivanovich M, Harmon R.S. (1982) Uranium series disequilibrium in application to environmental problems, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 51-55

[3] All Chemical Element; available online atwww.chemicalelements.com
[4] USCEAR, (United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation), (2000) Sources and effect of ionizing radiation, Report to the general assembly with scientific annexes. United Nations; New York

[5] Ballinger, P.W. (1991) National Radiation, radiographic position and procedures. Mosby year book, 1:21-32. ICRP (1975)

[6] CFR (1979), Standards for the protection against radiation: United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Rules and Regulations, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, part 20. Washington D.C. USNRC.

[7] NCRP, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, (1975) Natural Background Radiation in the USA, Report no. 45, MD 20814

[8] EPA; available online at: www.epa.gov/radiation.

[9] ICRP, (1975), NCRP, (1971) National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement

[10] ICRP,(1990) Publication 60, Recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Annual of ICRP vol. 21, No 13 Pergamum Press, Elmsford, NY (1991).

[11] Ajibade, A. C, (1976). Provisional classification and correlation of the schist belt in North- western Nigeria. Elizabethan Publishing co, Ibadan, 85-87.

[12] EML (Environmental Measurement Laboratory), (1983) Procedure Manual, New York.

[13] NCRP, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, (1993) Effects of radiation

[14] Nobel, B. J. (1990) An introduction to radiation protection. Macmillan Family Encyclopaedia. 2nd ed. 116-118.

[15] NRC, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (1999) Effect of a high dose on human and symptoms

[16] Nwankwo. L I; Akoshile, C O (2005a) Background radiation study of Offa industrial area of Kwara state, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sci. Environ. Mgt. Vol. 9 (3) 95-98

[17] Radiation Detectors; available online at www.en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/radiation_detectors

[18] Richard S. Lawson (1999) An Introduction to Radioactivity: Chief Physicist. Nuclear Medicine Department, Manchester Royal Infirmary, pg. 2-6
[19] UCF, (University of Central Florida), Department of Environmental Health, Radiation Safety (Principles and Program overview). Pg. 3

[20] Alpha Emitters available online at: www.cna.ca/curriculum/cna_radiation/alpha_emitterseng.asp?bc=Common%20Alpha%20Emitters&pid=Common%20Alpha%20Emitters.

[21] USDE, (United States Department of Energy) (1991), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

[22] USNRC: United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1999) What are the sources of radiation? Office of Public Affairs, Washington DC 20555, 1-3.