International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research (ISSN 2347-4289)

IJTEEE >> Volume 4 - Issue 8, August 2016 Edition

International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research  
International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research

Website: http://www.ijteee.org

ISSN 2347-4289

The Chemistry Of Natural Product: Plant Secondary Metabolites

[Full Text]



Nwokeji Paul Anulika, Enodiana Osamiabe Ignatius, Ezenweani Sunday Raymond, Osaro-Itota Osasere, Akatah Hilda Abiola



Metabolites, Phytochemicals, Natural products, Biosynthesis



Natural products are those chemical compounds or substances that are isolated from living organism. It can be in form of primary or secondary metabolites. Plant secondary metabolites are organic compounds or phytochemicals that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development or reproduction of the plant. These secondary metabolites are classified into three namely; Terpenes, Phenolic compounds and Nitrogen-containing compounds. Their biosyntheses are derived from primary metabolism pathways, which include tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), methylerithrotol phosphate (MEP) pathway, mevalonic and shikimic acid pathway. They can be extracted from plants using organic solvents and modern separation techniques to get the analyte of interest. Their economic importance include their role in antimicrobial, pharmaceuticals, plant defence against herbivory, fragrance, stimulants, toxicity, attractant, plant breeding, physiological stress response, and allelopathtic effect.



[1] Amaral, J. A., Ekins, A., Richards S. R. and Knowles, R. Effect of selected monoterpenes on methane oxidation, denitrification and aerobic metabolism by bacteria in pure culture .Applied Environmental Microbiology 64: 520-525. 2013.

[2] Bahl, B. S. and Bahl, A.. Advanced Organic Chemistry of Natural Product. Charp and Company Ltd. 1250p. 2007.

[3] Bhat, S. V., Nagasampagi, B. A. and Sivakumar, M. Chemistry of natural product. Berlin, New York. Springer. ISBN 81-7319-481-5. 650p. 2005.

[4] Balandrin, M. F., Klocke, J. A., Wurtele, E. S. and Bollinger, W. H. Natural plant chemicals: source of industrial and Medicinal material. Science 228: pp1154-1160. 1985.

[5] Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. Dirigent protein and dirigent sites explain the mystery of specificity of radical precursor coupling in lignan and lignin biosynthesis. Plant Physiology 123: pp453-461. 2000.

[6] Duke, A. Pyrrole pigment isoprenoid compound and phenolic plant constituents. Vol. 9. Elsevier, New York, U .S. A. 960p. 2012.

[7] Edeoga, H. O., Okwu, D. E. and Mbaebie, B. O.. Phytochemical constituent of some Nigeria medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology 4 (7): pp685-688. 2009.

[8] Fessenden, R. J. and Fessenden, J. S. Organic Chemistry (2nd edn.). Willard Grant Press, Massachusetts, U. S. A. 57p. 1997.

[9] Finar, I. L. Stereochemistry and the chemistry of natural Product. Vol.2 (5thedn.), Pearson Education Ltd, Patparganj Delhi, India. 942p. 2006.

[10] Gershenzon, J. and Croteau, R. Terpenoid in Herbivores: Their interaction with Secondary Plant Metabolite: the Chemical participant. Vol.1(2nd edn.).AcademicPress San Diego, California, U. S. A. 409p. 2012.

[11] Hartmann, T. Chemical ecology of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Planta 207: pp483-495. 2013.

[12] Harris, R. S. Pyrrole pigments, isoprenoid compound and Phenolic plant Constituents Vol. 9. Elsevier, New York, U .S .A. 610p. 1998.

[13] Haslam, E. Natural polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drug: Possible Mode of action. Journal of Natural Product 39: pp205-215. 1996.

[14] Hill, A. F. Economic Botany. A textbook of useful plant and plant Products (2nd edn.). MC-Graw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, U .S .A. 743p. 1952.

[15] Idu, M. and Onyibe, H. I. Nature of Ergastic substances in Some Fabaceae seeds. Research Journal of Botany 3(1): pp23 -28. 2008.

[16] Kessler, A. and Baldwin, I. T. Defensive function of herbivore Induced plant volatile emission in nature. Science 29 : pp2141-2144. 2001.

[17] Kondo, T., Yoshida, K., Kawai, T., Tamura, H. and Goto, T.. Structural basis of blue colour development in flower petal from Commelina communis. Nature 358: pp515-518. 2012.

[18] Levison, H. Z. The defensive role of alkaloids in insects and plants. Experienta 92:pp 408-411. 2006.

[19] Lewis, W. H. and Elvin-Lewis, M. P. Medicinal plants as source of new therapeutics. Annals of Missouri Botanic Garden 82: pp16-24. 1995.

[20] Li, J., Lee, O., Raba, R. and Last, R . L. Arabidopsis flavonoid mutant are hypersensitive to UV-B radiation. Plant Cell 85: pp171-179. 2003.

[21] Okwu, D. E. Flavorings properties of species on cassava African Journal of Root Tuber Crops 3(2): pp19-21. 1999

[22] Okwu, D. E. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Indigenous species and flavoring agents. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science 7(3): pp455-459. 2001.

[23] Oliver, B. Medicinal plant in tropical West Africa. CamBridge University press, New York. 155p. 2006.

[24] Omoigui, I. D. and Gill, L. S. Nature of ergastic substances in some West African Compositae. Feddes Repertorium 99: pp143-145. 1988.

[25] Omulokoli, E., Khan, B. and Chbabra, S. C. Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plant. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 56: pp133-137. 1997.

[26] Philipson, J. D. and ONeill M. J. New leads to the treatment of protozoa infection based on the natural product molecules. Acta Pharmacological Nordic 1: pp131-144. 2010.

[27] Shou-Cheng, P., Shu-Li, M. and Pei-Gen, X. Secondary Metabolite and biosynthesis pathway Approach in Medicinal plant (Centipeda minima). Asian Journal of Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics. 9(3):pp 233-238. 2009.

[28] Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. Plant physiology. Third Edition. Sinauer Association Inc., California, U .S. A. 690p. 2005.

[29] Wink, M. Plant Breeding: Importance of plant secondary metabolite for protection against pathogen and herbivores Theoretical and Applied Genetics 75: pp225-233. 1998.

[30] Inderjit, P., Dakshini, K. M. and Emhellia, F. A. Allelopathy Organism, Processes and Application ACS Symposium Series American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. 27p. 1995.

[31] Johns, T. Chemical Ecology of the Aymara of Western Bolivia: Selection for Glyco-alkaloids in the Solanum X Ajanhuiri Domestication Complex.PhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, U .S .A. 65p. 1985.