Early Explorations On The Automatic Evolution Of Printable 3D Objects
Jia Hui Ong, Jason Teo
Keywords: Automatic 3D shape evolution; Evolutionary art; Superformula; Evolutionary Programming (EP); Evolutionary Algorithm (EA); 3D printing
ABSTRACT : Designing a 3D object is a very laborious process that usually involves expertise and time using various 3D design software. Numerous researchers have proposed mathematical formulas to automatically design in 2D space and has led to recent efforts being done on studies which use mathematical formulas to create objects in 3D space. Johan Gielis’s Superformula that was generalized from the Supereclipse formula was able to generate 3D shapes by extending the spherical product of the Superformula. In this research, the Superformula is use to automatically generate 3D object shapes through Evolutionary Programming that are free-form evolution and non target-based evolution as in most existing studies on automatic evolution of 3D shapes. A novel fitness function was designed to evaluate the shapes generated by Superformula that serve as a part of the parent selection process in Evolutionary Programming. Through five experiments, the final objects generated from each run were selected to be printed out using 3D printing. Three out of five objects were successfully printed out from this automatic 3D object generationprocess. However, two objects were printed with deformation due to the thin layer of the object. From the observation gainedin the first five runs, the fitness function was then fine-tuned in order to evolve a more printable 3D object. From the fine-tuning another five runs were tested and the results show all five final objects from the evolution process were successfully printed out using a 3D printer with significantly less deformation due to thin layers.
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