IJTEEE
International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research (ISSN 2347-4289)
PREVIOUS PUBLICATIONS



IJTEEE >> Volume 2 - Issue 7, July 2014 Edition



International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research  
International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research

Website: http://www.ijteee.org

ISSN 2347-4289



Impact Of Concrete, Steel And Timber On The Environment: A Review

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Joseph A. Anejo

 

KEYWORDS

Keywords : Environmental impact, concrete, steel, timber, embodied energy, life cycle assessment.

 

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT:The elements of the built environment are all products of construction. Construction uses materials obtained from natural sources or processed from raw materials obtained from natural sources. Concrete, steel and timber are used predominantly in construction. In addition to satisfying construction needs, these materials also bring about serious environmental problems. The purpose of this paper is to review the impact of the use of these three basic construction materials on the environment. It was pointed out that the negative impact could be reduced by the recycling and reuse of the materials which will reduce the consumption of new materials. The use of naturally occurring materials where available in place of these materials was also suggested as an additional means of reducing the impacts from construction materials. These were strongly recommended. It was revealed that timber is the most environmentally friendly construction material. Steel was shown to be capable of being reused and recycled many times and therefore should be preferred above concrete for structural purposes. Informed and intelligent material selection was given to be an important key as well. Proper understanding of the material environmental performance can be achieved with the use of Life Cycle Assessment. This provides a means through which the environmental impact of the materials right from processing through the use in construction, unto the demolition/deconstruction of the facility will be determined, and was strongly advocated.

 

REFERENCES

[1] Smith, R.A., Kersey, J.R. and Griffiths, P.J. (2003). The Industry Mass Balance: resource use, wastes and emissions. Viridis Re-port VR4 (Revised). ISSN 1478-0143.

[2] United Nations (1997). The Kyoto Protocol. New York. United Nations.

[3] Wahab, A.B. and Lawal, A.F. (2011). An evaluation of waste control measure in construction industry in Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 5(3), March, pp 246 254.

[4] GeoHive (2011). Global Statistics/Population Statistics. www.geohive.com

[5] Ampofo-Anti, N. (2009). Environmental impacts of con struction materials use: a lifecycle approach. Green Building Handbook for South Africa. Vol. 1: (A guide to ecological design), pp 1 9.

[6] Lomite, H. and Kare, S. (2009). Impact of Construction Materials on Environment (Steel and Concrete). Masters Thesis submitted to the School of Engineering, University College of Boras, Sweden.

[7] Nelson, P.O. et al (2001). Environmental impacts of construction and repair materials on surface and ground waters. Summary of Methodology, Laboratory Results, and Model Development. Transport Research Board Natioal Research Council. Washington D.C. National Academy Press.

[8] Shetty, M.S. (2005). Concrete Technology: Theory and Prac-tice. New Delhi, India. S. Chand and Company Li-mited.

[9] Mehta, K.P. and Monterio, (2006). Concrete: Microstructure, Properties and Materials. McGraw Hill Ltd. California, U.S.A.

[10] Roberts, B. (2011). Global cement consumption up 9.9% last year. ConstructionWeekOnline.Com. 7thApril. www.constructiononline.com/article-11772. Retrieved 30.04.11.

[11] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Develop-ment (OECD) (2009). Trends in the global steel market. DSTI/SU/SC (2009) 4. 66th Steel Committee Meeting, Paris. 8 9 June. Paris, OECD.

[12] World Steel Association (2010). World steel in figures 2010. Brussels, World Steel Association.

[13] Anonymous (2011). Keynote Address by Secretary (Steel) Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and Institute of Steel Development and Growth (INSDAG). February 18 19. New Delhi.

[14] Dinwoodie, J.M. (2001). Timber in Illston, J.M. and Damone, P.L.J. eds. Construction Materials: Their Nature and Behaviour. Third edition. London, Spon Press. P 425.

[15] Food and agricultural Organisation (FAO) of United Nations (1998). Global fibre supply. Rome. FOA.

[16] Matthews, E. (2000). From forest to floorboards: Trends in Industrial Roundwood Production and Consumption. Earth Trends: The Environmental Information Portal. World Resources Institute. www.earthtrends.wri.org/text/forests-grasslands-drylands/features-6. Retrieved 29.04.11.

[17] Snell, C. and Callahan, T. (2005). Building Green: A Com-plete How-To Guide to Alternative Building Methods. First edition. Lark Books. New York. Stirling Publishing Inc

[18] . Holtzhausen, H.J. (2007). Embodied energy and its impact on architectural decisions. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 102, pp 377-385.

[19] Alcorn, A. (2003), Embodied Energy and CO2 Coefficients for NZ Building Materials. Centre for Building Performance Research, Victoria University, Wellington.

[20] Cement Concrete and Aggregates Australia (nd). Improving the environmental performance of concrete. CCAA.

[21] Cattalli, V. and Williams, M. (2001). Designing for disassembly. Canadian Architect. January.

[22] FFS Refiners (Pty) Ltd (nd), Wood as the Material of Environmental Choice. www.ffs.com/wood. Retrieved 28.05.2014.

[23] Ortiz, O., Pasqualino, J.C. and Castells, F. (2010). Environmental performance of construction waste: comparing three scenarios from a case study in Catalonia, Spain. Waste Management. 30: 646-654.

[24] Broadbent, C. (2011). World Steel: Providing the basis for LCA studies. Brussels. World Steel Association.

[25] Steel Recycling Institute (2014), Recycling Construction Materials. Steel Recycling Institute, 680 Andersen Dr. Pittsburg, PA 15220=2700.

[26] Association of General Contractors (AGC) of America (2011). Recycling/Reusing C&D Materials. AGC of America, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

[27] International Standard Organisation (ISO) (2006). ISO 14040: Environmental management Life cycle assessment Principles and framework. 3rd Edition. International Standard Organisation, Geneva, Switzer-land.

[28] UNEP (1996). Life Cycle Assessment: what it is and how to do it. www.lcainitiative.org. Retreived on 26.11. 2006.

[29] United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2006). Life cycle assessment: principles and practice. www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/lcaccess/lca101.htm. Re-trieved on 23. 01. 2007.

[30] Keoleian, G. A., Blanchard, S. and Reppe, P. (2001). Lifecycle energy, costs and strategies for improving a single family house. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 4(2), pp. 135-156.

[31] Adalberth, K., Almgren, A. and Holleris, P. E., (2001). Life-cycle assessment of four multi-family buildings. International Journal of Low Energy and Sustainable Buildings, 2, pp. 1-21.

[32] . Edwards, B. (2002). Rough guide to sustainability. 1st Edition. London: RIBA Publications.

[33] Junnila, S., Horvath, A. and Guggemos, A.A., (2006). Life Cycle Assessment of office buildings in Europe and the United States. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 12(1), pp. 10-17.