Designing of a Smart Transformer
Gurjant Singh, 4th SEM, M.E. (EE), Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Mohali
Dr. Inderpreet Kaur, Professor EEE Department, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Mohali
Index term: smart transformer, microgrid, voltage droop control, on load tap changing transformer, smart transformer control strategies
Abstract: As an integral part of the Smart Grid, smart transformers both work independently to constantly regulate voltage and maintain contact with the smart grid in order to allow remote administration if needed and to provide information and feedback about the power supply and the transformers themselves. Through a process known as voltage optimization, a smart transformer provides the exact amount of power that is needed, and responds instantly to fluctuations within the power grid, acting as a voltage regulator to ensure that the optimized voltage is undisturbed. Because they directly reduce energy consumption, smart transformers therefore directly reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well. As a recognized Smart transformer are a ready and significant source of LEED Points for any business or organization in pursuit of LEED certification. This makes them an important part of any energy retrofit or lighting retrofit. While smart transformers immediately reduce power consumption by providing a stable, optimal power supply that supplies electrical equipment with its ideal voltage, they also protect electrical equipment from power fluctuations – thereby helping electrical equipment last longer. In this paper we discuss on a continuous and discrete smart transformer which is accurate and fast respectively. The continuous smart transformer has a continuous turn ratio and it controls the microgrid side voltage without voltage steps, there for it increases the system accuracy and on another side discrete smart transformer has discrete turn ratio, the output is regulated between several discrete values and discrete smart transformer is less accurate.
 Wim Willems, Tine L. Vandroorn D. M. De Kooning; “Development of a Smart Transformer to control the power of a Micro grid”, 4th IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, 6th-9th Oct 2013, Copenhagen.
 T. L. Vandoorn, J. D. M. De Kooning, B. Meersman, J. Guerrero, and L. Vandevelde, “Voltage-based control of a smart transformer in a microgrid,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1291-1305, Apr. 2013
 T. L. Vandoorn, B. Meersman, L. Degroote, B. Renders and L. Vandevelde, “A Control Strategy for Islanded Microgrids with dc-link Voltage Control,” IEEE Trans. Pow. Del., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 703-713, Apr. 2011
 T. L. Vandoorn, B. Renders, L. Degroote, B. Meersman, and L. Vandevelde, “Active load control in islanded microgrids based on the grid voltage,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 139-151, Mar. 2011
 J. Faiz and B. Siahkolah, “New Controller for an Electronic Tap Changer - Part I: Design Procedure and Simulation Results,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 223-229, Jan. 2007
 J. Faiz3 and B. Siahkolah, “New Controller for an Electronic Tap Changer - Part II: Measurement Algorithm and Test Results,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 230-237, Jan. 2007
 P. Kadurek, J. F. G. Cobben, W. L. Kling, “Smart medium and low voltage transformer for future grids”, IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, 2010