International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research (ISSN 2347-4289)

IJTEEE >> Volume 2 - Issue 6, June 2014 Edition

International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research  
International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research

Website: http://www.ijteee.org

ISSN 2347-4289

Elemental Distribution Of Groundwater Of Babugonj Upazila In Bangladesh And Their Suitability Assessment For Multipurpose Use

[Full Text]



M. I. Hoque, M. A. Sattar, M.R. Haque



Keywords : Drinking, Groundwater quality, Irrigation and Livestock consumption.



ABSTRACT: An investigation was conducted to evaluate the water quality of some ground for irrigation, drinking and livestock consump-tion. Fifteen samples were collected from Babugonj upazila of Barisal district in Bangladesh. The chemical constituents of water samples were determined to find out their suitability for irrigation, drinking and Livestock consumption. As per pH all water samples were slightly acidic to slightly alkaline and were found suitable for irrigation, drinking and aquaculture, except 07 samples of ground water which were graded unsuitable for drinking. EC (Electrical conductivity) of all the samples were not problematic for irrigation and all samples were "Medium salinity" group (C2). TDS (Total dissolved solids) of all ground water samples were graded as "fresh" water in quality. Ca and Mg concentration were suitable for drinking. All samples were "excellent" in respect of B concentration. The P concentration in groundwater sources of Babugonj upazila might not be harmful for multipurpose use. No samples of groundwater water contained any arsenic. The Cu concentration was within safe limit for drinking. No detectible amounts of carbonate were present in the collected water samples. The Cl concentrations of all the samples were found to be suitable for drinking but unsuitable for Livestock consumption. SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) of all the samples were as low sodium water (SAR< 10) i.e. S1 category. Based on PAR (Potassium Adsorption Ratio) values the water samples would not be harmful for agricultural corps. Eight samples of groundwater were unsuitable for irrigation in respect of RSC (Residual Sodium Carbonate). In respect of SSP (Soluble Sodium Percentage) 02 samples were "Excellent" and the rest were "good" classes for irrigation. In case of Hardness 03 samples were "Hard" 11 as "Medium Hard" and 01 "Soft" class for irrigation and 03 samples were unsuitable for livestock consumption. Except Cl all the chemical constituents were within the suitable range for livestock consumption.



[1] Ahmed, B. 2010. Water pollution assessment around Ghorashal and Potash fertilizer industrial area. MS Thesis. Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.

[2] Ahsan, M. N. 2004. Assessment of groundwater quality at Eastern Surma Kushiara Floodplain and Neighboring regions in Sylhet Division. MS Thesis. Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.

[3] Ali, M. A. 2010. Surface and groundwater pollution assessment around Jamuna fertilizer industrial area at Jamalpur in Bangladesh. MS Thesis. Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.

[4] Aminul, M. I. 2010. Evaluation of groundwater quality for irrigation in selected areas of Rajshahi district. MS Thesis. Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.

[5] Anonymous. 2004. Water: A millennial priority. The Acme Agrovat and Beverage Ltd. Bangladesh.

[6] APHA (American Public Health Association), 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21th edition, AWWA and WEF, Washington, USA. 1-30 ~ 40-175.

[7] APHA. 1995. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th edn. American Public Health Association. Wahsington, D.C. 20005.

[8] Ayers, R. S. and Westcot, D. W. 1985. Water Quality for Agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper. 29: 1-144.

[9] Eaton, A. D.; Clesceri, L. S. and Greenberg, A. E. 1995. Standard methods for the Examination of water and wastewater. 19th edn. American Public Health Association. American Water Works Association, Water Environmental Federation. Washington, D.C. 200005. 1-88 to 1-19.

[10] Eaton, F. M. 1950. Significance of Carbonation Irrigation Waters. Soil Science. 67:12-133.

[11] Fakayode, S. O. 2005. Impact of industrial effluents on water quality of the receiving Alaro River in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ajeam-Ragee. 10: 1-13.

[12] Freeze, A. R. and Cherry, J. A. 1979. Groundwater. Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. 84-387.

[13] Ghosh, A. B.; Bajaj, J. C.; Hasan, R. and Singh, D. 1983. Soil and Water Testing Methods. A Laboratory Manual, Div. Soil Sci. Agric. Chem., IARI, New Delhi, India. 1-48.

[14] Golterman, H. L. and Clymo, R. S. 1971. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Fresh Waters. IBP Handbook No. 8. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Oxford and Edinburgh, England. 41-46.

[15] Gomez, K. A. and Gomez, A. A. 1984. Statistical procedures for agricultural Research. 2nd. Edn. John Wiley and Sons. New York.

[16] Gupta, U. C. and Gupta, S. C.1998. Trace Element Toxicity Relationships to Crop Production and Livestock and Human Health: Implication for Managemen. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 29: 11-14,1491-1522.

[17] Hunt, D. T. E. and Wilson, A. L. 1986. The Chemical Analysis of Water: General Principles and Techniques. 2nd edn. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge. 1-2.

[18] Karanth, K. R. 1994. Groundwater Assessment Development and Management. TATA McGrew-Hill Publishing Company Limited. New Delhi, India. 217-273.

[19] Meade, J. W. 1989. Aquaculture Management. New York. Van Nostrand Reinhold.

[20] Metcalf and Eddie. 2003. Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. Forth Edition. New York, USA: McGraw Hill.

[21] Michael, A. M. 1997. Irrigation: Theory and Practices. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 448-452~708-717.

[22] Mishra, R. D. and Ahmed, M. 1993. Manual on Irrigation Agronomy. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

[23] Mokaddes, M. A. A.; Nahar, B. S. and Baten, M. A. 2012. Status of Heavy Metal Contaminations of River Water of Dhaka Metropolitan City. J. Environ. Sci. & Natural Resources, 5(2): 349 353.

[24] Nizam, M. U.; Shariful, M. I.; Mamun, Z. A. and Shahidul, M. I. 2011. Groundwater Quality of Dumki Upazila in Bangladesh for Drinking, Irrigation and Livestock. J. Environ. Sci. & Natural Resources, 4(1): 39 44.

[25] Page, A. L.; Miller, R. H. and Keeney, D. 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part-2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Second edition. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Soil Science Society of American Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 403-430.

[26] Pimentel, D.; Berger, B.; Filiberto, D.; Newton, M.; Wolfe, B.; Karabinakis, E.; Clark, S.; Poon, E.; Abbett, E. and Nandagopal, S. 2004. Water Resources: Agricultural and Environmental Issues. Bioscience. 54: 909-918.

[27] Quddus, K. G. and Zaman, M. W. 1996. Irrigation water quality in some selected villages of Meherpur in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Agric. Sci., 23: 51-57.

[28] Rahman, M. M. and Rahman, T. M. A. 2007. As-sessment of groundwater pollution and its impact on soil properties along with plant growth. Bangladesh J. Agril. Sci., 34: 39-42.

[29] Rahman, M. M.; Haque, S. M.; Yasmin, S.; Rahman, M. S. and Kim, J. E. 2005. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation and agro-based industrial usage in selected aquifers of Bangladesh. Korean J. Environ., Agric. 24: 98-105.

[30] Richard, L. A. (Ed) 1968. Diagnosis and Improve-ment of Saline and Alkali Soils. Agricultural Hand-book 60,USDA and IBH. Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi, India.

[31] Sawyer, C. N. and McCarty, P. K. 1967. Chemistry for Sanitary Engineers. 2nd edn. McGraw Hill, New York, USA. 518.

[32] Shaik, M. 2009. Groundwater quality rating for irrigation and drinking usage in Low Ganges River Floodplain. MS Thesis. Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.

[33] Shaik, M. B. 2010. Appraisal of ionic toxicity of groundwater for irrigation, poultry and livestock usage in the selected aquifers of Faridpur. MS Thesis. Thesis. Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.

[34] Stanitski, C. L.; Eubanks, P. L.; Middlecamp, C. H. and Pienta, N. J. 2003. Chemistry in context: Applying Chemistry in Society. McGraw-Hill, New York.

[35] Tandon, H. L. S. 1995. Methods of Analysis of Soils, Plants, Waters and Fertilizers. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization, New Delhi, India. 84-90.

[36] Todd, D. K. 1980. Groundwater Hydrology. 2nd edn., John Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York, USA. 267-315.

[37] USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) 1975. Federal Register. 40: 59566-59588.

[38] WHO (World Health Organization) 1971. International Standards for Drinking Water. Cited from Ground water Assessment Development and Management. 248-249.

[39] Wilcox, L. V. 1955. Classification and use of irrigation water. U.S Depart. of Agric. Cir. No. 969. Washington, USA. 19.

[40] WWAP (WORLD WATER ASSESSMENT PRO-GRAMME) 2003. Water for people-water for life. Executive Summary of the United Nations World Water Development Report 1: Water for people-water for life. Paris and Oxford: UNESCO and Berghahn Books.

[41] Zakir, H. M.; Moshfiqur, M. R.; Rahman, A.; Ahmed, I. and Hossain, M. A. 2012. Heavy Metals and Major Ionic Pollution Assessment in Waters of Midstream of the River Karatoa in Bangladesh. J. Environ. Sci. & Natural Resources, 5(2): 149 160.

[42] Zaman, M. W. and Rahman, M. M. 1996. Ionic toxicity of industrial process waters in some selected sites off' Sirajgonj in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Environ. Sci., 2: 27-34.

[43] Zaman, M. W.; Nizam, M. U. and Rahman, M. M. 2001. Arsenic and trace element toxicity in groundwater for agricultural, drinking and in-dustrial usage. Bangladesh J. Agric. Res., 26: 167-177.