International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research (ISSN 2347-4289)

IJTEEE >> Volume 4 - Issue 3, March 2016 Edition

International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research  
International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research

Website: http://www.ijteee.org

ISSN 2347-4289

Arab Kids Tutor (AKT) System For Handwriting Stroke Errors Detection

[Full Text]



Ahmed El-Sawy, Mohamed Loey, Hazem EL-Bakry



Interactive Learning Environments, Human-Computer Interface, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Improving Classroom Teaching



This paper presents the architecture, components and evaluation of Arab kids tutor (AKT), an intelligent tutor system for learning handwriting Arabic alphabets. Today, children suffer from handwriting difficulty, so tutors hope to get rid of negative impact of traditional learning system. Our system contains an immediate feedback with error detection that can check multiple kinds of handwriting errors and provide an intelligent feedback to our children. Moreover, AKT use freeman chain code and mathematical algorithms to detect order and direction errors. Through the work, we indicate the children level of understanding of learning handwriting character using fuzzy sets. Experimental results indicate that the AKT successfully detect handwriting strokes errors with automatic feedback.



[1] N. M. Noh, A. Ahmad, S. A. Halim, and A. M. Ali, "Intelligent Tutoring System using Rule-based And Case-based: A Comparison," Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 67, pp. 454-463, 2012.

[2] R. P. Sanchez, C. M. Bartel, E. Brown, and M. DeRosier, "The acceptability and efficacy of an intelligent social tutoring system," Computers & Education, vol. 78, pp. 321-332, 2014.

[3] Z. Jeremić, J. Jovanović, and D. Gašević, "Student modeling and assessment in intelligent tutoring of software patterns," Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 39, pp. 210-222, 2012.

[4] M. Badaracco and L. Martínez, "A fuzzy linguistic algorithm for adaptive test in Intelligent Tutoring System based on competences," Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 40, pp. 3073-3086, 2013.

[5] R. Z. Cabada, M. L. Barrón Estrada, and C. A. Reyes García, "EDUCA: A web 2.0 authoring tool for developing adaptive and intelligent tutoring systems using a Kohonen network," Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 38, pp. 9522-9529, 2011.

[6] J. Cardoso, G. Bittencourt, L. Frigo, E. Pozzebon, and A. Postal, "Mathtutor: A Multi-Agent Intelligent Tutoring System," in Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations. vol. 154, M. Bramer and V. Devedzic, Eds., ed: Springer US, pp. 231-242, 2004.

[7] Y. Sun and Z. Li, "A multi-agent intelligent tutoring system," in Computer Science & Education, 2009. ICCSE '09. 4th International Conference on, pp. 1724-1728, 2009.

[8] E. Sierra, A. Hossian, P. Britos, D. Rodriguez, and R. Garcia-Martinez, "A Multi-agent Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning Computer Programming," in Electronics, Robotics and Automotive Mechanics Conference, 2007. CERMA 2007, pp. 382-385, 2007.

[9] E. Lavendelis and J. Grundspenkis, "MASITS – A Tool for Multi-Agent Based Intelligent Tutoring System Development," in 7th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (PAAMS 2009). vol. 55, Y. Demazeau, J. Pavón, J. Corchado, and J. Bajo, Eds., ed: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 490-500, 2009.

[10] K. Günel and R. Aşlıyan, "Extracting learning concepts from educational texts in intelligent tutoring systems automatically," Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 37, pp. 5017-5022, 2010.

[11] M. Arevalillo-Herráez, D. Arnau, and L. Marco-Giménez, "Domain-specific knowledge representation and inference engine for an intelligent tutoring system," Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 49, pp. 97-105, 9// 2013.

[12] J. Marciniak, "Building Intelligent Tutoring Systems Immersed in Repositories of E-learning Content," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 35, pp. 541-550, 2014.

[13] M. A. Abbas, W. F. W. Ahmad, and K. S. Kalid, "OntoCog: A Knowledge based Approach for Preschool Cognitive Skills Learning Application," Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 129, pp. 460-468, 2014.

[14] M. C. Angelides and R. J. Paul, "Developing an intelligent tutoring system for a business simulation game," Simulation Practice and Theory, vol. 1, pp. 109-135, 1993.

[15] Z.-H. Hu, Y. Xu, L.-S. Huang, and H. Leung, A Chinese Handwriting Education System with Automatic Error Detection vol. 4, 2009.

[16] C. Guey-Shya, J. Yu-Du, W. Der-Bang, and C. Hei-Tsz, "Stroke order computer-based assessment with grey measure scoring," in Grey Systems and Intelligent Services, 2009. GSIS 2009. IEEE International Conference on, pp. 763-768, 2009.

[17] K.-T. Tang, K.-K. Li, and H. Leung, "A Web-Based Chinese Handwriting Education System with Automatic Feedback and Analysis," in Advances in Web Based Learning – ICWL 2006. vol. 4181, W. Liu, Q. Li, and R. W.H. Lau, Eds., ed: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 176-188. , 2006

[18] C. Guey-Shya, J. Yu-Du, and L. Li-Fon, "Computer-based Assessment for the Stroke Order of Chinese Characters Writing," in Innovative Computing, Information and Control, 2007. ICICIC '07. Second International Conference on, pp. 160-160, 2007.

[19] Z. Hu, H. Leung, and Y. Xu, "Stroke Correspondence Based on Graph Matching for Detecting Stroke Production Errors in Chinese Character Handwriting," in Advances in Multimedia Information Processing – PCM 2007. vol. 4810, H. S. Ip, O. Au, H. Leung, M.-T. Sun, W.-Y. Ma, and S.-M. Hu, Eds., ed: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 734-743, 2007.

[20] Z. H. Hu, Y. Xu, L. S. Huang, and H. Leung, "A Chinese handwriting education system with automatic error detection," J. Softw. Journal of Software, vol. 4, pp. 101-107, 2009.

[21] C. Neo Chin, E. S. L. Ming, P. I. Khalid, and F. Yeong Che, "Algorithm for Identifying Writing Stroke and Direction," in Computational Intelligence, Modelling and Simulation (CIMSiM), 2012 Fourth International Conference on, pp. 94-98, 2012.

[22] C. C. Neo, E. L. M. Su, P. I. Khalid, and C. F. Yeong, "Method to Determine Handwriting Stroke Types and Directions for Early Detection of Handwriting Difficulty," Procedia Engineering, vol. 41, pp. 1824-1829, 2012.

[23] K. W. T. G. T. Priyankara, D. C. Mahawaththa, D. P. Nawinna, J. M. A. Jayasundara, K. D. N. Tharuka, and S. K. Rajapaksha, "Android based e-Learning solution for early childhood education in Sri Lanka," in Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 2013 8th International Conference on, pp. 715-718, 2013.

[24] W. W. W. Tang, H. V. Leong, G. Ngai, and S. C. F. Chan, "Detecting handwriting errors with visual feedback in early childhood for Chinese characters," presented at the Proceedings of the 2014 conference on Interaction design and children, Aarhus, Denmark, 2014.

[25] Y. Elarian, I. Ahmad, S. Awaida, W. G. Al-Khatib, and A. Zidouri, "An Arabic handwriting synthesis system," Pattern Recognition, vol. 48, pp. 849-861, 2015.

[26] J. Hackett, "Semitic Languages," in Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (Second Edition), K. Brown, Ed., ed Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 229-235, 2006.

[27] A. Leff and J. T. Rayfield, "Web-application development using the Model/View/Controller design pattern," in Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, 2001. EDOC '01. Proceedings. Fifth IEEE International, pp. 118-127, 2001.

[28] Y. Kui Liu and B. Žalik, "An efficient chain code with Huffman coding," Pattern Recognition, vol. 38, pp. 553-557, 2005.

[29] L. A. Zadeh, "Fuzzy sets," Information and Control, vol. 8, pp. 338-353, 1965.

[30] H.-J. Zimmermann, Fuzzy set theory—and its applications (3rd ed.): Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.

[31] P. Cingolani and J. Alcalá-Fdez, "jFuzzyLogic: a Java Library to Design Fuzzy Logic Controllers According to the Standard for Fuzzy Control Programming," International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems, vol. 6, pp. 61-75, 2013.

[32] P. Cingolani and J. Alcala-Fdez, "jFuzzyLogic: a robust and flexible Fuzzy-Logic inference system language implementation," in Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 1-8, 2012.